Wai Sano

Photo of this volcano
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  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Caldera
  • Unknown - Evidence Credible
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.72°S
  • 120.02°E

  • 903 m
    2962 ft

  • 264060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Wai Sano.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Wai Sano.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Wai Sano.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
264060

Unknown - Evidence Credible

903 m / 2962 ft

8.72°S
120.02°E

Volcano Types

Caldera

Rock Types

Major
Dacite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
127,347
127,347
242,184
831,863

Geological Summary

Wai Sano is a low, elliptical caldera, 3.5 x 2.5 km wide, at the western end of Flores Island. Wai Sano contains a large caldera lake whose surface is 260 m below the 903 m high point on the southern caldera rim. The SE caldera wall truncated the slopes of 1632-m-high Gunung Cerak. Two solfataras are located at the SE shore of the lake. No historical eruptions are known from Wai Sano, which was mapped as Holocene in age (Ratman and Yasin, 1978).

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Kemmerling G L L, 1929. Vulkanen van Flores. Vulk Seism Meded Dienst Mijnw Ned-Indie, 10: 1-138.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Ratman N, Yasin A, 1978. Geologic map of Komodo quadrangle, Nusatenggar. Geol Surv Indonesia, 1:250,000 scale.

Stolz A J, Varne R, Davies, G R, Wheller G E, Foden J D, 1990. Magma source components in an arc-continent collision zone: the Flores-Lembata sector, Sunda arc, Indonesia. Contr Mineral Petr, 105: 585-601.

van Bemmelen R W, 1949b. The Geology of Indonesia. The Hague: Government Printing Office, v 1, 732 p.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Wai Sano. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Wai Sano page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Poco Dedehg
    Potjo Dedehg
Cone 1362 m 8° 44' 0" S 120° 1' 0" E

Photo Gallery


Wai Sano, the westernmost Holocene volcano on Flores Island, is a low, elliptical caldera, 3.5 x 2.5 km wide. Wai Sano contains a large caldera lake whose surface is about 640 m above sea level. The SE caldera wall truncated the slopes of 1632-m-high Gunung Cerak, and the low point on the caldera rim is on the eastern side. Two solfataras are located at the SE shore of the lake. No historical eruptions are known from Wai Sano.

Photo published in Kemnerling 1929, "Vulkanen van Flores" (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Wai Sano Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.