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Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1968 May 7||1968 Jun||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations||East flank|
|1964 Mar||1964 Mar||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations|
|1932 Mar 13||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations||SE flank|
|1903 Dec 8||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Kokon | Lina | Lawarkawra | Nika | Laworkawra|
|Nila Island, viewed here from off its northern coast, is the emergent summit of a stratovolcano that rises 3700 m from the Banda Sea floor. A submarine vent is located off the north flank immediately west of the small island of Nika. Gas bubbles were observed along the rim of the submarine cone in 1932, when an eruption occurred from a fissure extending from the summit to the SE coast.
Photo by Rizal, 1976 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
|A fumarole plume (right-center) rises above the steep SE slopes of Nila volcano, also known as Laworkawra or Lawarkawra. A remnant of the rim of a 5-km-wide caldera forms the forested slope at the left. The 781-m-high summit above it is a post-caldera cone that fills much of the caldera and extends to the sea at the right. Phreatic eruptions from Gunung Nila have occurred from summit vents and flank fissures during historical time.
Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1975 (published in Kusumadinata 1979, "Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia").
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Jezek P A, Hutchison C S, 1978. Banda Arc of Eastern Indonesia: petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks. Bull Volc, 41: 586-608.
Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.
Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.
Varekamp J C, Snellius II Shipboard Party, 1984. The Banda arc volcanoes, eastern Indonesia (abs). Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, 65: 1135.
Vroon P Z, 1992. Subduction of continental material in the Banda Arc, eastern Indonesia: Sr-Nd-Pb isotope and trace element evidence from volcanics and sediments. Fac Aardwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, 205 p.
|Large Eruptions of Nila||Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).|
|WOVOdat||WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.|
|EarthChem||EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).|
|Smithsonian Collections||Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.|