Tondano Caldera

Photo of this volcano
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  • Indonesia
  • Indonesia
  • Caldera
  • Unknown - Unrest / Holocene
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.23°N
  • 124.83°E

  • 1202 m
    3943 ft

  • 266070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Tondano Caldera.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Tondano Caldera.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Tondano Caldera.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Unrest / Holocene

1202 m / 3943 ft


Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Tondano is an approximately 20 x 30 km Quaternary caldera in north Sulawesi containing post-caldera pyroclastic cones, obsidian flows, and thermal areas. Lake Tondano lies against the well-defined eastern caldera rim. The historically active andesitic-to-basaltic stratovolcanoes Soputan, Sempu, Lokon-Empung and Mahawu (described elsewhere in this compilation) lie astride the poorly defined southern and northern rims of the caldera. The age of the latest eruptions within the caldera is not known, although thermal areas occur at Batu Kolok and Sarangson, and at the Tampusu cinder cone and Lahendong maar.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Effendi A C, 1976. Geologic map of the Manado quadrangle, north Sulawesi. Volc Surv Indonesia, geol map.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Tondano Caldera. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Tondano Caldera page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Lengkoan Cone 1° 15' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
    Wahi, Gunung
Cone 900 m 1° 11' 0" N 124° 48' 0" E
Cone 1202 m 1° 15' 0" N 124° 51' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
    Linow Lahendong
Maar 988 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 48' 0" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Batukolok Thermal 890 m 1° 9' 29" N 124° 45' 0" E
Conte Vidua Solfatara Field Fumarole
Langoan Thermal
Rano Kulo Thermal 770 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
Rano Randang Thermal 770 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
Rano Sapet Thermal 770 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
Sarangsong Thermal 770 m 1° 17' 0" N 124° 49' 0" E
Tompasso Thermal

Photo Gallery

A fumarole rises above an area of extensive hydrothermal alteration at Raindang, on the western flank of Gunung Lahendong, one of several post-caldera cones in the 20 x 30 km Tondano caldera in northern Sulawesi. The caldera floor is dotted with pyroclastic cones, obsidian flows, and numerous hydrothermal areas. No historical eruptions are known from the caldera itself, although several stratovolcanoes constructed along its rim have been historically active.

Photo by Sukiman Kamal, 1979 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Tondano Caldera in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Tondano Caldera Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.