Leonard Range

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.382°N
  • 126.047°E

  • 1080 m
    3542 ft

  • 271031
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Leonard Range.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Leonard Range.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Leonard Range.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



120 CE

1080 m / 3542 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

An andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano complex in the Leonard Range is truncated by a 4 x 5 km caldera partially filled by Lake Leonard. The volcano (also known as Leonard Kniazeff) is located east of the head of Davao Gulf in SE Mindanao, east of the major N-S-trending Philippine Fault. Activity at the Leonard Range dates back to 1.1 million years. A dome building stage began about 290,000 years ago, producing a series of lava domes in the region surrounding Lake Leonard. A younger stage involved the eruption of the Paloc pyroclastic deposits from the late-Pleistocene to Holocene and the formation of the caldera. Holocene radiocarbon dates ranging from about 6000 to 1800 years ago were obtained from the Paloc pyroclastic deposits. The Leonard Range (or North Davao) area has been the object of a geothermal exploration program. The Manat thermal area is located north of Lake Leonard, solfataras occur its SW rim, and active solfataras, fumaroles, and hot springs are found in the Amacan-Gopod thermal area south of the lake.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Del Mundo E T, Arpa M C, 2007. (pers. comm.).

PHIVOLCS, 2004-. Volcanoes. http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanolist/.

Ramos S, Zaide-Delfin M, Takashima I, Bayrante L, Panem C, Pioquinto W, 2000. Thermoluminescence dating in Mt. Labo and North Davao, Philippines: implications on geothermal wells. Proc World Geotherm Cong 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku Japan, May 28-June 10, 2000, p 1617-1622.

Sajona F G, Bellon H, Maury R C, Pubellier M, Cotten J, Rangin C, 1994. Magmatic response to abrupt changes in geodynamic settings: Pliocene-Quaternary calc-alkaline and Nb-enriched lavas from Mindanao, Philippines. Tectonophysics, 237: 47-72.

Sajona F G, Bellon H, Maury R C, Pubellier M, Querbral R D, Cotten J, Bayon F E, Pagado E, Pematian P, 1997. Tertiary and Quaternary magmatism in Mindanao and Leyte (Philippines): geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic setting. J Asian Earth Sci, 15: 121-153.

Wolfe J A, 1982. (pers. comm.).

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0120 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0080 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
4090 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Leonard Kniazeff | North Davao


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Leonard, Lake Caldera


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Camogon Dome
Katumbuan Dome
Kniazeff Dome
Kniazeff 2 Dome
Leonard East Dome
Leonard North Dome
Mamaon Dome
Paloc Dome
Tandic Dome
Teresa Dome
Ugos Dome


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Amacan-Gopod Thermal
Manat Thermal

Photo Gallery

The arcuate lake in the center of this NASA Landsat image (with north to the top) is Lake Leonard. The lake partially fills a 4 x 5 km caldera cutting this andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano complex in the Leonard Range in SE Mindanao Island. Activity at the Leonard Range dates back to the Pleistocene, but explosive eruptions continued well into the Holocene, with the latest dated eruption taking place about 1800 years ago. Active geothermal areas are found both north and south of the volcano.

NASA Landsat7 image (worldwind.arc.nasa.gov)

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Leonard Range in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Leonard Range Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.