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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 14.07°N
  • 121.48°E

  • 2158 m
    7078 ft

  • 273050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Banahaw.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Banahaw.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Banahaw.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Evidence Credible

2158 m / 7078 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The 2158-m-high Banahaw (also known as Banahao) is the highest of a group of volcanoes south and east of Manila. Banahaw is flanked by San Cristobal volcano on the west and Banahaw de Lucban on the NE. Andesitic-to-dacitic lava domes occur on the flanks of Banahaw and San Cristobal. Two major Holocene debris avalanches have occurred at Banahaw volcano. The deposit from one extends 13 km to the NE and the other 26 km to the SE, where it forms 10 km of the coastline of Tayabas Bay. San Cristobal stratovolcano rises to 1480 m, 7 km west of Banahaw. Its youthful morphology suggests that it postdates Banahaw. Banahaw de Lucban is a 1875-m-high stratovolcano that was constructed within the 8-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera related to the two debris avalanches, and is the youngest volcano of the Banahaw complex. The 2-km-wide, 600-m-deep summit crater of Banahaw is open to the SSW and contained a crater lake until 1730, when it drained, forming mudflows. Mudflows were also recorded in 1743?, 1843 and 1909, possibly also associated with explosive activity.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

COMVOL, 1981. Catalogue of Philippine volcanoes and solfataric areas. Philippine Comm Volc, 87 p.

Geronimo-Catane S, 1994. Mode of emplacement of two debris-avalanche deposits at Banahao volcano, southern Luzon, Philippines. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 39: 113-127.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Neumann van Padang M, 1953. Philippine Islands and Cochin China. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 2: 1-49.

PHIVOLCS, 2004-. Volcanoes.

Sapper K, 1917. Katalog der Geschichtlichen Vulkanausbruche. Strasbourg: Karl J Trubner, 358 p.

Wolfe J A, Self S, 1983. Structural lineaments and Neogene volcanism in southwestern Luzon. In: Hayes D E (ed) {The Tectonic and Geological Evolution of Southeast Asian Seas and Islands: Part 2}, Amer Geophys Union Monograph 27.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1909 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Banáhao
[ 1843 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Banáhao
[ 1743 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Banáhao
[ 1730 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Banáhao

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Banajao | Banahao | Majaijai


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Banahaw de Lucban Stratovolcano 1875 m 14° 4' 37" N 121° 30' 43" E
Mayabobo Cone
San Cristobal Stratovolcano 1470 m 14° 3' 50" N 121° 25' 23" E


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Dagatan, Lake Maar
Ticab, Lake Maar


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Buho Dome
Masalakot Dome


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bakia Warm Springs Hot Spring
Buenventura Spring Hot Spring
Cagsiay Hot Springs Hot Spring
Mainit Hot Springs Hot Spring
Olla Spring Hot Spring
Sampaloc Warm Springs Hot Spring
San Diego Spring Hot Spring
San Vicente Spring Hot Spring
Tiang-San Pablo Hot Springs Hot Spring

Photo Gallery

Mount Banáhao (Banahaw) is the highest of a group of volcanoes south and east of Manila. The 2158-m-high Banáhao is flanked by San Cristóbal to the west and Banáhao de Lucban on the east. This view from the SW shows a valley descending from the summit of Banáhao that was formed or deepened by the outbreak of a crater lake in 1730. Collapse of Banahao produced two major debris avalanches. The largest traveled 26 km SE to the sea, where it forms a 10 km section of Tayabas Bay coastline.

Photo by Chris Newhall, 1989 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The large 2-km-wide, 600-m-deep depression cutting the SSW flank of 2158-m-high Banáhao contained a crater lake until 1730, when it drained, forming mudflows. Banáhao is flanked by San Cristobal volcano (far left-center) on the west and on the NE by Banáhao de Lucban, the forested symmetrical stratovolcano above and to the right of Banáhao. Andesitic-to-dacitic lava domes occur on the flanks of Banáhao and San Cristobal.

NASA Landsat image, 2002 (courtesy of Hawaii Synergy Project, Univ. of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetology).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Banahaw in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Banahaw Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.