Laguna Caldera

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
  Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 14.42°N
  • 121.27°E

  • 743 m
    2437 ft

  • 273080
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Laguna Caldera.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Laguna Caldera.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Laguna Caldera.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Unrest / Holocene

743 m / 2437 ft


Volcano Types


Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The elliptical, 10 x 20 km wide Laguna Caldera SE of Manila forms the middle lake-filled basin of the three-pronged, dinosaur-footprint-shaped Laguna de Bay, the largest lake on Luzon Island. Pre-caldera Pleistocene volcanism formed basaltic to basaltic-andesitic volcanoes, including Talim Island and Mount Sembrano stratovolcanoes on opposite sides of the current caldera. The caldera, whose lake surface is only 1 m above sea level, may have formed during at least two major explosive eruptions about 1 million and 27,000-29,000 years ago. Post-caldera volcanism formed maars of young, but unknown age at the southern end of elongated Talim Island, which forms the SW rim of the caldera. Jalajala is a solfataric field on the flank of Mount Sembrano on the Jalajala Peninsula, which forms the eastern rim of the caldera.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Catane S G, Taniguchi H, Goto A, Givero A P, Mandanas A A, 2005. Explosive volcanism in the Philippines. CNEAS Monograph Ser, Tohoku Univ, 18: 1-146.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Neumann van Padang M, 1953. Philippine Islands and Cochin China. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 2: 1-49.

Wolfe J A, 1982. (pers. comm.).

Wolfe J A, Self S, 1983. Structural lineaments and Neogene volcanism in southwestern Luzon. In: Hayes D E (ed) {The Tectonic and Geological Evolution of Southeast Asian Seas and Islands: Part 2}, Amer Geophys Union Monograph 27.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Laguna Caldera. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Laguna Caldera page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Sembrano, Mount Stratovolcano
Talim Island Stratovolcano


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
    Sulfur Hill
Thermal 743 m 14° 21' 0" N 121° 20' 0" E

Photo Gallery

The center of the three-pronged, dinosaur-footprint-shaped Laguna de Bay in the center of the NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper right) is Laguna Caldera. The caldera, whose lake surface is only 1 m above sea level, may have formed during at least two major explosive eruptions about 1 million and 27,000-29,000 years ago. The city of Manila lies along Manila Bay at the top center, and the large caldera at the lower left is Taal. At the extreme right is the Pacific Ocean.

Photo by National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), 1992.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Laguna Caldera in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Laguna Caldera Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.