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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 18.222°N
  • 122.123°E

  • 1133 m
    3716 ft

  • 273090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Cagua.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Cagua.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Cagua.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



1860 CE

1133 m / 3716 ft


Volcano Types


Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Mount Cagua, a 1133-m-high stratovolcano, lies at the NE tip of Luzon. The circular summit crater is 1.5 km in diameter, with steep, 60-m-high walls. Basaltic-andesite and basaltic lava effusion characterized the initial stage of volcanism during the early Pleistocene. From about 600,000 to 300,000 years ago thick pyroclastic flows covered the entire volcano. Recent periods of phreatomagmatic activity have produced ash flows. The forested volcano is locally known as the "Mountain of Fire." A phreatic explosion in 1860 may have been accompanied by a pyroclastic flow. Strong solfataric activity occurred in 1907, and thermal areas are located near the summit crater and on the NW to NNE flanks.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

COMVOL, 1981. Catalogue of Philippine volcanoes and solfataric areas. Philippine Comm Volc, 87 p.

Defant M J, Jacques D, Maury R C, de Boer J, Joron J-L, 1989. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Luzon arc, Philippines. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 101: 663-672.

Defant M J, Maury R C, Joron J, Feigenson M D, Leterrier J, Bellon H, Jacques D, Richard M, 1990. The geochemistry and tectonic setting of the northern section of the Luzon arc (the Philippines and Taiwan). Tectonophysics, 183: 187-205.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

McDermott F, Defant M J, Hawkesworth C J, Maury R C, Joron J L, 1993. Isotope and trace element evidence for three component mixing in the genesis of the North Luzon arc lavas (Philippines). Contr Mineral Petr, 113: 9-23.

Neumann van Padang M, 1953. Philippine Islands and Cochin China. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 2: 1-49.

PHIVOLCS, 2004-. Volcanoes.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1860 Oct Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Kawa | Caua | Gagua


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kabinlangan Thermal
Maasok Thermal
Magrafil Thermal
Manaring Thermal
Paminta Thermal
San José Thermal

Photo Gallery

Mount Cagua, a 1133-m-high stratovolcano, lies just below and to the left of the center of this NASA Space Shuttle image. Palui Island lies off the tip of the peninsula, which forms the NE tip of Luzon and is about 30 km wide at its broadest point. Cagua, locally known as the "Mountain of Fire," has a circular summit crater 1.5 km in diameter. Its only known historical eruption consisted of a phreatic explosion in 1860 that may have been accompanied by a pyroclastic flow. Thermal areas are located on the NW to NNE flanks.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS033-76-23, 1989 (
The northernmost active volcano in Luzon is Mount Cagua, a 1133-m-high stratovolcano at the NE tip of Luzon. The forested volcano is locally known as the "Mountain of Fire." A phreatic explosion in 1860 may have been accompanied by a pyroclastic flow. Strong solfataric activity occurred in 1907, and thermal areas are located near the summit crater and on the NW to NNE flanks.

Photo courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Cagua in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Cagua Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.