Didicas

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 19.077°N
  • 122.202°E

  • 228 m
    748 ft

  • 274020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: January 1978 (BVE 18)


Ashfall observed in early January 1978 over the entire island

[The following report of observations during 6-9 January 1978 was published in the Bulletin of Volcanic Eruptions (1980). "Aerial observation conducted over Didicas volcano revealed that the whole volcano island was covered fresh volcanic ashes, however, no lava extrusion and usual agitation of the sea water in the immediate vicinity was noticed. Observation also disclosed that the three eruptive craters of the volcano located in the NNE portion of the island have no steaming activity nor bubbling activity."]

Reference. Volcanological Society of Japan, 1980, Bulletin of volcanic eruptions no. 18: Annual report of the world volcanic eruptions in 1978: International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, IUGG, p. 27.

Information Contacts: G.A. Andal, Commission on Volcanology, Quezon, Philippines.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Didicas.

Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

03/1969 (CSLP 69-29) New crater filled with boiling water; ashfall on island

04/1969 (CSLP 69-29) Ashfall near the crater, rock ejections and steaming; three deaths

01/1978 (BVE 18) Ashfall observed in early January 1978 over the entire island




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


March 1969 (CSLP 69-29)


New crater filled with boiling water; ashfall on island

Card 0476 (28 March 1969) New crater filled with boiling water; ashfall on island

"Air reconaissance Didicas Volcano on Babuyan Island 27 March reported eruption. Present activity at northern portion of island formed crater measuring 20 m at bottom, filled with muddy boiling water. Steam clouds without force rising few hundred feet above crater rim. Northern half of island covered by thick whitish-gray ash which also discolors sea fronting eruption site. Commission on Volcanology believes further ash eruption likely to be followed by lava extrusion."

Information Contacts: American Embassy, Manila, Philippines.


April 1969 (CSLP 69-29)


Ashfall near the crater, rock ejections and steaming; three deaths

Card 0484 (01 April 1969) Three persons killed while fishing near the volcano

Three persons were swallowed up while fishing near San Vicente, Sta. Ana, Cagayan, yesterday when Didicas Volcano at Didicas Island erupted, according to reports reaching the Commission on Volcanology in Manila from the Cagayan PC.

Arturo Alcaraz, chief volcanologist at the Commission on Volcanology, said that Didicas Volcano, which lies 100 km N of Aparri in Cagayan (figure 1), was a submarine volcano until 1952 when it erupted and formed an island one mile and a half in diameter and about 800 feet high above sea level.

Figure 1. Sketch map showing the location of Didicas in the Babuyan Islands north of Luzon, Philippines.

Card 0487 (03 April 1969) Ashfall evident around active crater; white steam rising

Commission on Volcanology report after air reconaissance on 28 March, Didicas indicates activity limited to northern portion of island. No ash ejection observed but recent ash falls evident around active crater. White steam rising. Commission on Volcanology expects continued intermittent ash eruption with possible future lava extrusion. Present activity constitutes no threat to inhabitants.

Card 0490 (08 April 1969) Minor fumarolic activity and steaming

"COMVOL air reconnaissance . . . indicated . . . Didicas activity waned from last week's eruption. Newly formed crater exhibiting small fumarolic activity at single point on inner slope. Steaming detected from higher area close to central portion volcano indicating possible activity shift to island's center."

Card 0506 (17 April 1969) Overflight on 29 March reveals steam rising from crater

Activity . . . has been limited to ash and rock ejection. The volcano's activity is still in its initial stage and a major eruption is possible. Nazario Vasquez made this observation on board this Herald plane which flew over the volcano at 0815 [on 29 March].

The spasmic ejections consisted of rocks which the volcano emits through a vent opened during the earlier stages of its present activity. Signs that the volcano was building up pressure were manifested by continued rise and extrusion of ashes and steam from a crater on the northern side of the islet. If the activity of the volcano continues, Nazario said, there would probably follow an extrusion of lava.

Commission of Volcanology records showed Didicas has erupted violently in the past. "Spines" have formed some 14 nautical miles off Camiguin Island north of Cagayan about 1856. These spines were above-the-sea-level expressions of a submarine volcano. Subsequent eruptions formed these rocks into an islet now known as Didicas. A volcano eruption in 1952 caused the formation of an islet 800 feet high and about a mile in diameter.

During the air reconnaissance survey, white steam was observed rising from the mouth of the crater in the northern portion. Nazario said there was a possibility of an undersea crater which could give vent to steam and lava.

Card 0514 (24 April 1969) Thick smoke observed on 31 March

The following message from the Calayan Weather Station was relayed by the Weather Bureau. "Didicas volcano seen emitting thick smoke yesterday (31 March) visible eastern part Calayan. People worried. Please advise immediately -Signed Singson."

The following evalution of the Didicas activity was furnished the Weather Bureau for transmittal to Calayan. "Commission on Volcanology believes Didicas activity to continue for some time yet. Further ash eruptions expected, but will not adversely affect Calayan or nearby islands. Allay people's fear also concerning tidal waves. Their occurrence considered only a remote possibility and even then their effects likely will be negligible to settlements of Babuyan Islands and northern Luzon."

Card 0515 (24 April 1969) Activity has waned from previous week

The current eruption of Didicas Volcano was observed to have waned from that of last week's recon findings. The activity in the newly formed explosion crater at the northern end of the island volcano has quited down to just small fumarolic activity at a point on its inner slope. However, steaming was detected from a higher area close to the central portion of the volcano. This may indicate that the point of activity can be shifting towards the center of the island.

Information Contacts:
Card 0484 (01 April 1969) Manila Times, Manila, Philippines (27 March 1969).
Card 0487 (03 April 1969) American Embassy, Manila, Philippines.
Card 0490 (08 April 1969) American Embassy, Manila, Philippines.
Card 0506 (17 April 1969) Rogelio Razon, The Philippines Herald, Manila, Philippines (29 March 1969).
Card 0514 (24 April 1969) Arturo Alcaraz, Commission on Volcanology, Manila, Philippines.
Card 0515 (24 April 1969) Arturo Alcaraz, Commission on Volcanology, Manila, Philippines.


January 1978 (BVE 18)


Ashfall observed in early January 1978 over the entire island

[The following report of observations during 6-9 January 1978 was published in the Bulletin of Volcanic Eruptions (1980). "Aerial observation conducted over Didicas volcano revealed that the whole volcano island was covered fresh volcanic ashes, however, no lava extrusion and usual agitation of the sea water in the immediate vicinity was noticed. Observation also disclosed that the three eruptive craters of the volcano located in the NNE portion of the island have no steaming activity nor bubbling activity."]

Reference. Volcanological Society of Japan, 1980, Bulletin of volcanic eruptions no. 18: Annual report of the world volcanic eruptions in 1978: International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, IUGG, p. 27.

Information Contacts: G.A. Andal, Commission on Volcanology, Quezon, Philippines.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
274020

1978 CE

228 m / 748 ft

19.077°N
122.202°E

Volcano Types

Compound

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Crustal thickness unknown

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
132
52,751

Geological Summary

Didicas volcano, 22 km NE of Camiguin Island, was a submarine volcano prior to 1952, when a permanent island was formed. Didicas now consists of a small, 244-m-high andesitic lava dome about 1.4 km in longest exposed dimension. A 400-m-wide crater was formed during the 1952 eruption. The first recorded submarine eruption of Didicas was in 1773. The first recorded subaerial cone reached a height of 213 m in 1860, after a four-year-long eruption, but soon was eroded beneath the sea. Three rock masses up to 82 m high were left after an eruption in 1900. Two eruptions have occurred since 1952 at an explosion crater on the northern side of the island.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Alcaraz A, Abad L F, Tupas M H, 1956. The Didicas submarine volcano. Proc 8th Pacific Sci Cong, 2: 139-156.

COMVOL, 1981. Catalogue of Philippine volcanoes and solfataric areas. Philippine Comm Volc, 87 p.

Defant M J, Maury R C, Joron J, Feigenson M D, Leterrier J, Bellon H, Jacques D, Richard M, 1990. The geochemistry and tectonic setting of the northern section of the Luzon arc (the Philippines and Taiwan). Tectonophysics, 183: 187-205.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Neumann van Padang M, 1953. Philippine Islands and Cochin China. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 2: 1-49.

Pena O, 1982. (pers. comm.).

PHIVOLCS, 2004-. Volcanoes. http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanolist/.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1978 Jan 6 1978 Jan 9 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NNE side
1969 Mar 21 1969 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations North side
1952 Mar 16 (in or before) 1953 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1900 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1856 Sep 30 ± 30 days 1860 Oct (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1773 Oct Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Didica | Dedica | Didikas Rocks | Dedicas

Photo Gallery


An aerial view shows the small, 244-m-high island of Didicas. Didicas volcano, 22 km NE of Camiguin Island, was a submarine volcano prior to 1952, when a permanent island was formed. A 400-m-wide crater was formed during the 1952 eruption. The first recorded submarine eruption of Didicas was in 1773. Two eruptions have occurred since 1952 at an explosion crater on the northern side of the island.

Photo courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Didicas Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.