Iraya

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 20.469°N
  • 122.01°E

  • 1009 m
    3310 ft

  • 274060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Iraya.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Iraya.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Iraya.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
274060

1454 CE

1009 m / 3310 ft

20.469°N
122.01°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Crustal thickness unknown

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
3,087
4,118
8,255
12,873

Geological Summary

The morphologically youthful Iraya volcano, at the north end of Batan Island, is the northernmost active volcano in the Philippines. Iraya is the most prominent feature of the 20-km-long, dumbbell-shaped Batan island, located in the Luzon Strait between Luzon and Taiwan. The 1009-m-high Quaternary stratovolcano has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater, which is largely filled by a younger cone that forms the summit of the volcano. Observed late-Pleistocene and Holocene products are exclusively explosive. The youngest dated unit is a pyroclastic-flow deposit radiocarbon dated at about 1500 years ago (Richard et al., 1986). The Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (2004-) listed an eruption in 1454 CE of unspecified character.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Defant M J, Jacques D, Maury R C, de Boer J, Joron J-L, 1989. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Luzon arc, Philippines. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 101: 663-672.

Defant M J, Maury R C, Joron J, Feigenson M D, Leterrier J, Bellon H, Jacques D, Richard M, 1990. The geochemistry and tectonic setting of the northern section of the Luzon arc (the Philippines and Taiwan). Tectonophysics, 183: 187-205.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

PHIVOLCS, 1991. Volcanoes of the Philippines. Manila: PHIVOLCS Press, 41 p.

PHIVOLCS, 2004-. Volcanoes. http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Volcanolist/.

Richard M, Maury R C, Bellon H, Stephan J F, Boirat J M, Calderon A, 1986. Geology of Mt. Iraya volcano and Batan Island, northern Philippines. Philippine J Volc, 3: 1-27.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1454 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0470 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0250 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Irada

Photo Gallery


Clouds drape the summit of Iraya volcano at the NE end of Batan Island (upper right) in this NASA Landsat image (with north to the top). The morphologically youthful volcano is the northernmost active volcano in the Philippines. Iraya is the most prominent feature of the 20-km-long, dumbbell-shaped Batan island, located in the Luzon Strait between Luzon and Taiwan. The Pliocene to early Pleistocene Mount Mataram volcano forms the SW end of Batan Island. The tip of Sabtang Island is at the lower left.

NASA Landsat7 image (worldwind.arc.nasa.gov)
Forested Iraya volcano rises above the airport on Batan Island. The morphologically youthful volcano is the northernmost active volcano in the Philippines. The 1009-m-high Quaternary stratovolcano has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater, which is largely filled by a younger cone that forms the summit of the volcano. A pyroclastic-flow deposit was radiocarbon dated at about 1500 years ago, and a historical eruption was reported in 1454 AD.

Photo courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Iraya Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.