Ibusuki Volcanic Field

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 31.22°N
  • 130.57°E

  • 924 m
    3031 ft

  • 282070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Ibusuki Volcanic Field.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Ibusuki Volcanic Field.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Ibusuki Volcanic Field.

Ibusuki volcanic field at the southern tip of Kyushu consists of numerous central cones and maars, the 4.5-km-wide Ikeda caldera, and Kaimondake stratovolcano. The symmetrical andesitic Kaimondake is the most prominent feature of the field and is capped by a lava dome. Ibusuki has been very active during the Holocene, forming the Ikeda caldera about 4600 years ago, numerous maars and lava domes. Kaimondake formed during the last 4000 years, from which all eruptive activity has occurred fter about 2650 years ago. Its last eruption took place in the 9th century. JMA (2013) breaks out Kaimondake as a separate volcano from the Ikeda caldera, Yamagawa maar group, and caldera lava domes. The large Pleistocene Ata caldera, once thought to partially underlie this volcanic field, is now considered to be located farther to the east beneath Kagoshima Bay.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1615 Aug 7 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Kaimon
0885 Aug 29 0885 Sep 28 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Kaimon
[ 0882 Nov ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Kaimon
0874 Mar 29 0874 Jul (?) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Kaimon
[ 0866 May ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Kaimon
[ 0860 Apr ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Kaimon
0770 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-beta
0720 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-gamma
0660 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon
0600 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-delta
0550 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-epsilon
0270 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-zeta
0150 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-eta
0130 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-theta
0030 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-iota
0080 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-kappa
0270 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-lamda
0650 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-mu
0700 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra layer Km-nu
1450 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Mizunashi, Kagami, Ikezoko maars
1500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra layer Km-xi
1550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Nabeshima-dake
1610 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra layer Km-omicron
1780 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra set Km-pi
2010 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Kaimon, Tephra layer Km-rho
2690 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Ikeda-ko caldera, Tephra layer Ikp
5050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Unagi, Narikawa and Yamakawa maars

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kaimondake
    Satuma-Huzi
    Satsuma-Fuji
    Haimon-dake
    Hirakiki-dake
    Sho-Fuji
    Tsukushi-Fuji
    Kaibun
    Utsubo-shima
Stratovolcano 924 m 31° 10' 48" N 130° 31' 42" E
Karayama Stratovolcano


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ikeda Caldera 256 m 31° 12' 48" N 130° 34' 2" E
Ikezoko Maar
Matsugakubo Maar
Mizunashi Maar
Narikawa Maar
Unagi Maar
Yamagawa
    Yamakawa
Maar 3 m 31° 12' 36" N 130° 38' 12" E


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ishimine Dome
Kasegadake Dome
Kiyomidake Dome
Nabeshimadake Dome
Sendayama Dome
Takeyama Dome
Tsujinodake Dome
Washiodake Dome
Weathering of volcanic ash deposits can produce rich volcanic soils that are fertile nutrients for agriculture, such as these fields at the foot of Kaimon volcano in southern Kyushu. It is no accident that population density is high near volcanoes--although volcanic ash soils underlie less than 1% of the Earth's land surface, they support 10% of the world's population. Volcanic soils support crops such as rice fields in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Japan, sugar cane in Hawaii and Central America, and vineyards in Italy.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1988 (Smithsonian Institution).
Symmetrical Kaimon volcano is the youngest and most prominent feature of the Ibusuki volcanic field at the southern tip of Kyushu. The 922-m-high stratovolcano, seen here from the north, was built during the last 4000 years and has produced all the historical eruptions of the volcanic field. The Ibusuki field, located west of the Pleistocene Ata caldera, contains numerous small central cones, maars, and the 4.5-km-wide Ikedo-ko caldera. The latest eruptions of Kaimon took place during the 9th century.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1988 (Smithsonian Institution).
Ikeda-ko, a 4.5-km-wide, lake-filled caldera, was formed as a result of a major explosive eruption about 4600 years ago. Kaimon volcano, the highest peak of the Ibusuki volcanic field, rises to the SW above the caldera rim. The eruption of the 3 cu km Ikeda pumice was the the largest Holocene eruption of the Ibusuki volcanic field, which consists of a group of small central volcanoes and maars, along with Ikeda-ko caldera and Kaimon stratovolcano.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1988 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1975. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan. Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 119 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Nakamura M, 1980. Possibility of new volcanic activity at Ibusuki volcanic field, Kyushu, Japan. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 25: 195-205 (in Japanese with English abs).

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Sumi K, Takashima I, 1976. Absolute ages of the hydrothermal alteration halos and associated volcanic rocks in some Japanese geothermal fields. In: {Proc 2nd United Nations Symp Devel Use Geotherm Resour, San Francisco}, 1: 625-634.

Volcano Types

Caldera(s)
Stratovolcano(es)
Lava dome(s)
Maar(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Rhyolite
Dacite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
93,134
93,134
171,590
1,891,380

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Ibusuki Volcanic Field Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.