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Hakusan

Photo of this volcano
  • Japan
  • Japan, Taiwan, Marianas
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1659 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 36.155°N
  • 136.771°E

  • 2702 m
    8865 ft

  • 283050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Hakusan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Hakusan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Hakusan.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 26 Holocene eruptive periods.

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1659 Apr 21 1659 Aug 8 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Midoriga-ike
1658 Oct (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1640 Aug 2 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1582 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1579 Sep 27 ± 1 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Jigoku-no-oana
1554 May 1556 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW of Midoriga-ike
1548 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1547 Mar 4 1547 Oct (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1239 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1177 May 18 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  
1042 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Midoriga-ike
[ 0900 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0884 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0859 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0853 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Hm-14 tephra?
0706 Sep (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0500 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-13 tephra
0200 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hm-11,12 tephras
0200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Kengamine, Hm-10 tephra
2550 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-9 tephra
3550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hm-8 tephra
3900 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-7 tephra
5000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Hm-5 tephra
6550 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-4 tephra
7050 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hm-3 tephra
7550 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-1 tephra
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Hakusan.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Hakusan.

Photo Gallery

Early November snowfall at Haku-san accentuates the volcano's name, which means "White Mountain." Eruptions at multiple vents along a roughly N-S line give the complex stratovolcano an elongated profile; the volcano is viewed here from the west. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions from several summit craters. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture, 1983 (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
Haku-san, one of Japan's three most sacred mountains, is a complex stratovolcano overlooking the Japan Sea. It is seen here from the west, with Norikura and On-take volcanoes forming the high snow-capped peaks on the left and right horizons, respectively. Haku-san was constructed over a high basement of sedimentary rocks in a region of very heavy snowfall that has contributed to its erosional dissection. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
Kengamine (left) and Gozenga-mine (right) peaks are seen from Onanji-mine, another of the summit peaks of Haku-san volcano. The Kengamine lava dome and the Shiramizutaki lava flow extending from its base originated during an explosive eruption about 2300 years ago. A pond fills the Midorga-ike explosion crater in the left foreground, which was formed during an explosive eruption in 1042 CE.

Photo by Toshio Higashino (Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
Midoriga-ike, seen here from the SW, is one of several craters along the summit complex of Haku-san volcano. Old documents contain a story of an eruption in 1042 CE in which Midoriga-ike pond was formed and a wooden hut near the summit was buried in debris. The contemporary descriptions suggest that the eruption consisted of phreatic explosions that ejected older volcanic rocks around the vent.

Photo by Toshio Higashino (Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
This outcrop along the Oshira-kawa river east of Haku-san volcano in Japan shows textures that are common at debris-avalanche deposits. Large fractured clasts are carried in a finer matrix that shows variations in color. This results from the transport of small discrete segments of the volcano for long distances without being totally disaggregated and mixed together. This debris avalanche was produced by a volcanic landslide from the summit and eastern flank of Haku-san about 4200 years ago.

Photo by S. Shimuzu (courtesy of Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
Haku-san ("White Mountain"), seen here from the WNW, is a complex stratovolcano near the Japan Sea coast. Its elongated profile results from eruptions at multiple vents along a roughly N-S line. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions from several summit craters. Partial collapse of the summit produced a debris avalanche down the east flank. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture, 1994 (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.


Title: Computer Generated Geologic Map of Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1990
Series: No 22
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:2,000,000
Map of Computer Generated Geologic Map of Japan

Title: Japan, South Korea
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: Japan, S Korea
Year: 1989
Series: TPC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of Japan, South Korea

Title: Japan, South Korea
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: Japan, S Korea
Year: 1988
Series: ONC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Japan, South Korea

Title: (B) Q Maps of Japan Landforms, Geol, Tect: Central
Publisher: Univ of Tokyo Press & Japan Association for Quaternary Research
Country: Japan
Year: 1987
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of (B) Q Maps of Japan Landforms, Geol, Tect: Central

Title: Shirotori
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1985
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Shirotori

Title: Japan
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: Japan
Year: 1985
Series: TPC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of Japan

Title: Historical Japan
Publisher: National Geographic Society
Country: Japan
Year: 1984
Series: National Geographic
Map Type: Geographic
Scale: 1:2,982,000
Map of Historical Japan

Title: Hagiwara
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1984
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Hagiwara

Title: Japan
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: Japan
Year: 1983
Series: TPC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of Japan

Title: Hakusan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1982
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Hakusan

Title: Geol Map of Japan/ Geol Atlas
Publisher: Geol Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1982
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Geol Map of Japan/ Geol Atlas

Title: Mikkamachi
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1982
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Mikkamachi

Title: Central Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Series: CIM 1:1 mil
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Central Japan

Title: Central Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Central Japan

Title: Central Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Central Japan

Title: Geological Map of Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1978
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Geological Map of Japan

Title: Geological Map of Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1978
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Geological Map of Japan

Title: Distribution Map of Hot Springs in Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1975
Series: 1:2,000,000
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:2,000,000
Map of Distribution Map of Hot Springs in Japan

Title: (Japanese) Geol map of Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1974
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of (Japanese) Geol map of Japan

Title: Landform Classification
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown (Land)
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Landform Classification

Title: Land Use
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown (Land)
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Land Use

Title: Population Distribution
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Population Distribution

Title: River Systems
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of River Systems

Title: Central Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1966
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Central Japan

Title: Nagoya
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1953
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Nagoya

Title: Kanazawa
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1953
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Kanazawa

Title: Nagoya
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1945
Series: AMS
Map Type: Road
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Nagoya

Title: Osaka
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1945
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Osaka

Title: Haku-San
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1945
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Haku-San

Title: Kanazawa
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1944
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Kanazawa
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Hakusan in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites