Hakusan

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 36.155°N
  • 136.771°E

  • 2702 m
    8863 ft

  • 283050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Hakusan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Hakusan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Hakusan.

Hakusan, along with Fujisan and Ontakesan, is one of Japan's three most sacred mountains. It is a complex andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano overlooking the Japan Sea. The 2702-m-high volcano was constructed over a high basement of sedimentary rocks in a region of very heavy snowfall that has contributed to erosional dissection. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions from several summit craters. Partial collapse of the summit produced a debris avalanche down the E flank during the mid-Holocene. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1659 Apr 21 1659 Aug 8 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Midoriga-ike
1658 Oct (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1640 Aug 2 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1582 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1579 Sep 27 ± 1 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Jigoku-no-oana
1554 May 1556 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW of Midoriga-ike
1548 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1547 Mar 4 1547 Oct (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1239 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1177 May 18 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  
1042 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Midoriga-ike
[ 0900 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0884 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0859 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0853 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Hm-14 tephra?
0706 Sep (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0500 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-13 tephra
0200 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hm-11,12 tephras
0200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Kengamine, Hm-10 tephra
2550 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-9 tephra
3550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hm-8 tephra
3900 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-7 tephra
5000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Hm-5 tephra
6550 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-4 tephra
7050 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hm-3 tephra
7550 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-1 tephra

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Haku-san

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Jigoku-no-oana
    Zigoku-no-oana
Crater
Midoriga-ike Crater

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kengamine Dome
Early November snowfall at Haku-san accentuates the volcano's name, which means "White Mountain." Eruptions at multiple vents along a roughly N-S line give the complex stratovolcano an elongated profile; the volcano is viewed here from the west. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions from several summit craters. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture, 1983 (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
Haku-san, one of Japan's three most sacred mountains, is a complex stratovolcano overlooking the Japan Sea. It is seen here from the west, with Norikura and On-take volcanoes forming the high snow-capped peaks on the left and right horizons, respectively. Haku-san was constructed over a high basement of sedimentary rocks in a region of very heavy snowfall that has contributed to its erosional dissection. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
Kengamine (left) and Gozenga-mine (right) peaks are seen from Onanji-mine, another of the summit peaks of Haku-san volcano. The Kengamine lava dome and the Shiramizutaki lava flow extending from its base originated during an explosive eruption about 2300 years ago. A pond fills the Midorga-ike explosion crater in the left foreground, which was formed during an explosive eruption in 1042 AD.

Photo by Toshio Higashino (Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
Midoriga-ike, seen here from the SW, is one of several craters along the summit complex of Haku-san volcano. Old documents contain a story of an eruption in 1042 AD in which Midoriga-ike pond was formed and a wooden hut near the summit was buried in debris. The contemporary descriptions suggest that the eruption consisted of phreatic explosions that ejected older volcanic rocks around the vent.

Photo by Toshio Higashino (Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
This outcrop along the Oshira-kawa river east of Haku-san volcano in Japan shows textures that are common at debris-avalanche deposits. Large fractured clasts are carried in a finer matrix that shows variations in color. This results from the transport of small discrete segments of the volcano for long distances without being totally disaggregated and mixed together. This debris avalanche was produced by a volcanic landslide from the summit and eastern flank of Haku-san about 4200 years ago.

Photo by S. Shimuzu (courtesy of Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
Haku-san ("White Mountain"), seen here from the WNW, is a complex stratovolcano near the Japan Sea coast. Its elongated profile results from eruptions at multiple vents along a roughly N-S line. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions from several summit craters. Partial collapse of the summit produced a debris avalanche down the east flank. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture, 1994 (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Endo K, 1985. Peat deposits and volcanic ashes on Haku-san volcano. Hakusan Nature Conservation Center, Rpt of Sci Res on the Alpine Zone of Mt Hakusan, p 11-30 (in Japanese).

Higashino T, 1989. The Documented Record of the Historic Activity of Mt. Hakusan. Ishikawa Prefecture: Hakusan Nature Conservation Center, 8 p.

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Yamasaki M, Nakanishi N, Kaseno Y, 1964. Nuee ardente deposit of Hakusan volcano. Sci Rpt Kanazawa Univ, 9: 189-201.

Yamasaki M, Shimizu S, Moriya I, Togashi S, Endo K, Higashino T, 1988. Evolution of Hakusan volcano, Central Japan, during the last 10000 years and the volcanic disasters in future. Proc Kagoshima Internatl Conf Volc, p 445-447.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
474
807
63,965
5,959,200

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Hakusan Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.