Hakusan

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 36.155°N
  • 136.771°E

  • 2702 m
    8863 ft

  • 283050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Hakusan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Hakusan.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Hakusan.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1659 Apr 21 1659 Aug 8 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Midoriga-ike
1658 Oct (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1640 Aug 2 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1582 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1579 Sep 27 ± 1 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Jigoku-no-oana
1554 May 1556 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW of Midoriga-ike
1548 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1547 Mar 4 1547 Oct (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1239 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1177 May 18 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  
1042 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Midoriga-ike
[ 0900 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0884 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0859 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 0853 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Hm-14 tephra?
0706 Sep (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0500 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-13 tephra
0200 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hm-11,12 tephras
0200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Kengamine, Hm-10 tephra
2550 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-9 tephra
3550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hm-8 tephra
3900 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-7 tephra
5000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Hm-5 tephra
6550 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-4 tephra
7050 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Hm-3 tephra
7550 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Hm-1 tephra

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Photo Gallery


Early November snowfall at Haku-san accentuates the volcano's name, which means "White Mountain." Eruptions at multiple vents along a roughly N-S line give the complex stratovolcano an elongated profile; the volcano is viewed here from the west. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions from several summit craters. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture, 1983 (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
Haku-san, one of Japan's three most sacred mountains, is a complex stratovolcano overlooking the Japan Sea. It is seen here from the west, with Norikura and On-take volcanoes forming the high snow-capped peaks on the left and right horizons, respectively. Haku-san was constructed over a high basement of sedimentary rocks in a region of very heavy snowfall that has contributed to its erosional dissection. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
Kengamine (left) and Gozenga-mine (right) peaks are seen from Onanji-mine, another of the summit peaks of Haku-san volcano. The Kengamine lava dome and the Shiramizutaki lava flow extending from its base originated during an explosive eruption about 2300 years ago. A pond fills the Midorga-ike explosion crater in the left foreground, which was formed during an explosive eruption in 1042 CE.

Photo by Toshio Higashino (Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
Midoriga-ike, seen here from the SW, is one of several craters along the summit complex of Haku-san volcano. Old documents contain a story of an eruption in 1042 CE in which Midoriga-ike pond was formed and a wooden hut near the summit was buried in debris. The contemporary descriptions suggest that the eruption consisted of phreatic explosions that ejected older volcanic rocks around the vent.

Photo by Toshio Higashino (Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
This outcrop along the Oshira-kawa river east of Haku-san volcano in Japan shows textures that are common at debris-avalanche deposits. Large fractured clasts are carried in a finer matrix that shows variations in color. This results from the transport of small discrete segments of the volcano for long distances without being totally disaggregated and mixed together. This debris avalanche was produced by a volcanic landslide from the summit and eastern flank of Haku-san about 4200 years ago.

Photo by S. Shimuzu (courtesy of Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.
Haku-san ("White Mountain"), seen here from the WNW, is a complex stratovolcano near the Japan Sea coast. Its elongated profile results from eruptions at multiple vents along a roughly N-S line. Holocene eruptions have consisted of phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions from several summit craters. Partial collapse of the summit produced a debris avalanche down the east flank. Historical eruptions were recorded over almost a thousand-year period until the 17th century.

Photo by Ishikawa Prefecture, 1994 (courtesy Toshio Higashino, Haku-san Nature Conservation Center).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


There are no samples for Hakusan in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites