Niigata-Yakeyama

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 36.921°N
  • 138.036°E

  • 2400 m
    7872 ft

  • 283090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: December 1992 (BGVN 17:12)


Steam emission unchanged

Steady white steam emission to heights of 30-250 m from vents near the summit continued through 1992, almost unchanged from previous years.

Information Contacts: JMA.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Niigata-Yakeyama.

Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

07/1974 (CSLP 96-74) Eruption on 28 July causes ashfall over a wide area

08/1974 (CSLP 96-74) Activity continuing from near summit and W-flank fissure

04/1983 (SEAN 08:04) Fresh ash on snow

09/1987 (SEAN 12:09) Small ash eruption; fuming

10/1987 (SEAN 12:10) Increased fume from summit, decrease from flank

04/1989 (SEAN 14:04) Increased steaming, small ash eruption

12/1991 (BGVN 16:12) Increased steaming

12/1992 (BGVN 17:12) Steam emission unchanged




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


07/1974 (CSLP 96-74) Eruption on 28 July causes ashfall over a wide area

Card 1895 (29 July 1974) Eruption on 28 July causes ashfall over a wide area

Mt. Yakeyama, which began erupting on 28 July, continues to belch smoke, spreading ashes over a wide area of Niigata Prefecture. The . . . mountain erupted at 0250 JST on 28 July for the first time in 25 years. Between 0.5 and 1 cm of ashes fell on cities and towns in the prefecture, including Joetsu and Arai. It was feared that mulberry trees, leaf tobacco, and vegetables had been seriously damaged by the ashes, and a helicopter was flown over the area to view the eruption and make a survey of the agricultural damage.

Information Contacts: Seismological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA).

08/1974 (CSLP 96-74) Activity continuing from near summit and W-flank fissure

Card 1904 (12 August 1974) Activity continuing from near summit and W-flank fissure

Mt. Yakeyama . . . continues to emit white smoke (figure 1). Except for minor activity, this is the first eruption in 25 years. The eruptions have been occurring in or near the summit crater of the lava dome, and most of the smoke is issuing from a 200-300-m-long fissure on the western flank of the lava dome. A survey team determined that a mudflow began at the upper reaches of the Hayakawa stream, and trees near the fissure crater were washed away. Three mountain-climbing students from the Chiba University, who were camped near the fissure crater, were killed by ejected fragments or poisonous gases.

Figure 1. Photograph showing white emissions from the flank of the central lava dome at Niigata-Yake-yama on 3 August 1974, three days after the first explosion. Courtesy of JMA.

Information Contacts: Seismological Division, JMA.

04/1983 (SEAN 08:04) Fresh ash on snow

On the morning of 15 April, a local resident noticed gray-tinted snow on the N flank and a plume near the summit area. On 18 April, a joint observation team from the firehouse, the district forestry office, and the city office of [Itoigawa] (20 km NE of the volcano), visited the summit area and found that ash had fallen on the snow over the N flank. Analysis of an ash sample at Niigata University showed that the ash was not freshly magmatic, but was composed of fragmented old rock that contained mainly plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene phenocrysts. No seismic activity was recorded, but no JMA seismograph is installed within 30 km of the volcano.

The volcano is a 400-m-high lava dome that rests on 2,000-m-high mountains underlain by sedimentary rock. During its last eruption, a phreatic explosion from fissures in the N and W flanks [near the summit] on 28 July 1974, three climbers were killed by ejecta, ash fell as far as 100 km to the NE damaging about 220 km2 of farmland, and two mudflows descended the N flank.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.
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09/1987 (SEAN 12:09) Small ash eruption; fuming

A small ash ejection is presumed to have occurred between late April and 1 May when brown snow was observed on the flank. At 1000 on 2 May fume clouds were rising 30-50 m from the NE part of the summit. Plume height reached 100 m on 4 May, and on 19 May 100-150-m-high clouds issued from three sites on the NE flank and one site on the SE flank. Similar activity was seen on 27 May, when seven sites were active; two emitted grayish fume and had yellow sublimates.

On 8 June fuming continued from one site at the summit and two sites on the upper NE flank, but at lesser volumes than in May. By 18 June the fume reached only 20-30 m. When observed on 19, 23, and 29 July, clouds rose 70-100 m from 2-3 sites on the upper NE flank and in the summit region. Eight fuming sites were visible on 7 August from the foot of the mountain and small amounts of white fume were rising 50-70 m. Observations on 7 and 11 August showed discoloration in the area from the summit to the upper E flank.

Information Contacts: Y. Sawada, JMA; D. Shackelford, Fullerton, CA.
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10/1987 (SEAN 12:10) Increased fume from summit, decrease from flank

Observations from the N foot of the volcano (8 km from the crater) on 7 September showed that the fuming from the upper NE flank was continuing. Summit fuming had visibly increased since 7 August observations, but fuming from the upper NE flank had decreased in volume. On 14 and 24 September, white vapors were seen rising from the E flank.

Information Contacts: Y. Sawada, JMA; D. Shackelford, Fullerton, CA.
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04/1989 (SEAN 14:04) Increased steaming, small ash eruption

A white steam plume was rising from the volcano's upper E flank during observations by the staff of Takada Weather Station (from sites 10-20 km away) 1 May 1987-September 1988. Emissions gradually declined, and after a 9 November 1988 visit, no plume was observed.

Moderate steam emission was seen again on 30 March 1989, with a white vapor plume rising 100-150 m from 2 areas on the upper E flank. Steam from the upper NE flank rose about 30-50 m on 15 April. Four days later, steam with a small amount of ash was emitted to about 100-150 m above the upper E flank, the first sighting of a gray plume since May 1987. Observations from Sasagamine (about 8 km SE) on 26 April revealed gray plumes rising 250-300 m from many sites on the upper E flank. A 30 April steam plume, about 300-400 m high and blown 600 m by the wind (figure 2), was the highest since May 1987. Access to the volcano has been closed to tourists.

Figure 2. Height of steam plumes at Niigata-Yake-yama, 1987-91. Courtesy of JMA.

Information Contacts: JMA.
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12/1991 (BGVN 16:12) Increased steaming

Steaming from vents near the summit has increased slightly since October. A seismometer installed near the volcano on 20 December recorded only 1 weak earthquake by 16 January. Steam emission has continued since late April 1987 (figure 1), when a small ash ejection occurred. Larger plumes in April 1989 also included ash.

Information Contacts: JMA.
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12/1992 (BGVN 17:12) Steam emission unchanged

Steady white steam emission to heights of 30-250 m from vents near the summit continued through 1992, almost unchanged from previous years.

Information Contacts: JMA.
Download or Cite this Report

Niigata-Yakeyama, one of several Japanese volcanoes named Yakeyama ("Burning Mountain"), is a very young andesitic-to-dacitic lava dome in Niigata prefecture in central Honshu, near the Japan Sea. The small volcano rises to 2400 m and was constructed on a base of Tertiary mountains 2000 m high beginning about 3100 years ago. Three major magmatic eruptions took place in historical time, producing pyroclastic flows and surges and lava flows that traveled mainly down the Hayakawa river valley to the north and NW. The first of these eruptions took place about 1000 years ago (in 887 and possibly 989 CE) and produced the Hayakawa pyroclastic flow, which traveled about 20 km to reach the Japan Sea, and the massive Mae-yama lava flow, which traveled about 6.5 km down the Hayakawa river valley. The summit lava dome was emplaced during the 1361 eruption, and the last magmatic eruption took place in 1773 CE. Eruptive activity since 1773 has consisted of relatively minor phreatic explosions from several radial fissures and explosion craters that cut the summit and flanks of the dome.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1998 Mar 30 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Upper east flank
1997 Oct 29 1997 Dec 10 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Upper east flank
1989 Apr 19 1989 Apr 26 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Upper East flank
1987 Apr 25 ± 5 days Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1983 Apr 14 (?) 1983 Apr 15 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1974 Jul 28 1974 Jul 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations WNW and NNE side of lava dome
1963 Jul 10 1963 Sep 30 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1963 Feb 14 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1962 Mar 14 1962 Mar 14 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1949 Feb 5 1949 Sep 13 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE-SW fissures, both sides of summit
1854 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations NW flank
1852 Nov 1 1853 May (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NW flank
1773 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Koyaike Ash; tephra layer KG-a
1361 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Koyaike Ash; tephra layer KG-b
0989 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Koyaike Ash; tephra layer KG-c?
0887 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Koyaike Ash; tephra layer KG-c
0813 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
0700 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Koyaike Ash; tephra layer KG-d
1750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1900 BCE ± 1050 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Koyaike Ash; tephra layer KG-e

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Yake-yama | Tyausu-yama | Chausu-yama | Niigata-Yake-yama

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ohachi
    Ohati
Crater
Steam pours from vents on Niigata-Yake-yama on August 3, 1974, shortly after a brief explosive eruption on July 28. The eruption killed three climbers and produced ashfall that caused much damage to croplands. Niigata-Yake-yama is a young andesitic lava dome near the Japan Sea, one of several Japanese volcanoes named Yake-yama ("Burning Mountain"). Several explosion craters and fissures, formed during historical eruptions that date back to the 9th century, cut the summit and flanks of the dome.

Photo courtesy of Japan Meteorological Agency, 1974.
Niigata-Yake-yama, the flat-topped peak in the center of the photo, is one of several Japanese volcanoes named Yake-yama ("Burning Mountain"). The andesitic lava dome, seen here from the north, is located in Niigata Prefecture, near the Japan Sea. Yake-yama is a very young volcano that was constructed beginning only 3000-3500 years ago. Several explosion craters and fissures, which were formed during historical eruptions that date back to the 9th century, cut the summit and flanks of the dome.

Photo by Yukio Hayakawa, 1990 (Gunma University).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Hayatsu K, 1985. Myoko volcano group - its geology and history. Tokyo: Daiichi-Shuppan, 344 p (in Japanese).

Hayatsu K, 1994. The activity and age of Niigata-Yakeyama volcano, central Japan. J Geog, 103: 149-165 (in Japanese).

Hayatsu K, 1976. Geologic study on the Myoko volcanoes, central Japan - Part 1. Stratigraphy. Kyoto Univ Ser Geol Min, 42: 131-170.

Hayatsu K, 1987. Pyroclastic flows erupted in medieval time at Niigata-Yakeyama volcano, Japan. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 32: 77-80 (in Japanese).

Hayatsu K, Shimizu S, Itaya T, 1994. Volcanic history of the Myoko volcano group, central Japan; a poly-generation volcano. J Geogr, 103: 207-220 (in Japanese with English abs).

Itoh H, Hayatsu K, Suzuki K, 2000. Small scale eruptions of Niigata-Yakeyama volcano 1997-1998. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 45: 181-186 (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Kudo T, Hoshizumi H, 2006-. Catalog of eruptive events within the last 10,000 years in Japan, database of Japanese active volcanoes. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db099/eruption/index.html.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Volcano Types

Lava dome
Explosion crater(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
73
610
226,866
3,920,252

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Niigata-Yakeyama Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.