Azumayama

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 37.735°N
  • 140.244°E

  • 1949 m
    6393 ft

  • 283180
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 30 May-5 June 2001 Cite this Report


On 29 May the Fukushima Local Meteorological Observatory reported that seismic activity increased slightly beneath Azuma during May. The Coordinating Committee for the Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions' seismic network detected 51 small-magnitude volcanic earthquakes during 21 and 22 May and 39 on 21 May (the most recorded in one day since November 1998). During March four low-frequency tremor events were recorded, while 40 were detected in April.

Source: The Japan Times


Most Recent Bulletin Report: October 2001 (BGVN 26:10) Cite this Report


Short-term increase in seismic activity during April-May 2001

On 29 May 2001 the Fukushima Local Meteorological Observatory reported that seismicity increased slightly beneath Azuma during the month. The seismic network maintained by the Coordinating Committee for the Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions detected 51 small volcanic earthquakes during 21-22 May and 39 events on 21 May (the most recorded in one day since November 1998). During March four low-frequency tremor events were recorded, and 40 were detected in April. The observatory last reported that by 22 May, local residents had felt 33 earthquakes.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan; The Japan Times; 5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0023, Central P.O. Box 144, 352, Tokyo 100-8691 (URL: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/).

Weekly Reports - Index


2001: May


30 May-5 June 2001 Cite this Report


On 29 May the Fukushima Local Meteorological Observatory reported that seismic activity increased slightly beneath Azuma during May. The Coordinating Committee for the Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions' seismic network detected 51 small-magnitude volcanic earthquakes during 21 and 22 May and 39 on 21 May (the most recorded in one day since November 1998). During March four low-frequency tremor events were recorded, while 40 were detected in April.

Source: The Japan Times


Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

01/1978 (SEAN 03:01) Small ash ejection in December

02/1978 (SEAN 03:02) Continued phreatic activity

05/1996 (BGVN 21:05) Small-amplitude volcanic tremor

07/1996 (BGVN 21:07) Small-amplitude volcanic tremor

10/2001 (BGVN 26:10) Short-term increase in seismic activity during April-May 2001




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


January 1978 (SEAN 03:01) Cite this Report


Small ash ejection in December

The number of volcanic earthquakes at Azuma, including some felt events, began to increase in September and continued at an increased rate in October. On 26 October, the fume cloud rose about 400 m from Oana Crater on the SE flank of Issaikyo, one of the numerous stratovolcanoes that comprise the Azuma complex. Mud and sand spattering began, and fist-sized blocks were thrown 20 m above the crater. Active fuming continued through November.

A brief eruption from Oana was observed during the early morning of 7 December from Fukushima Meteorological Observatory, about 20 km to the E. The ash cloud rose 500-1,000 m above the crater and produced a slight ashfall nearby. Similar ash ejections occurred through the end of December.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo; Y. Sawada, Meteorological Research Institute, Tokyo; D. Shackelford, USA.


February 1978 (SEAN 03:02) Cite this Report


Continued phreatic activity

Steam and ash emissions continued in January, with plumes rising 300-500 m from Oana crater.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo; D. Shackelford, USA.


May 1996 (BGVN 21:05) Cite this Report


Small-amplitude volcanic tremor

Small-amplitude volcanic tremors were detected on 26 April and 26 May. The last eruption occurred in December 1977. Earthquakes began in September 1977, followed by mud and sand spattering and ejection of small blocks in October, and active fuming in November. The small eruption on 7 December 1977 sent ash 500-1,000 m above the crater and produced minor ashfall. Similar ash ejections occurred through January 1978 (SEAN 03:01 and 03:02).

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


July 1996 (BGVN 21:07) Cite this Report


Small-amplitude volcanic tremor

Small-amplitude volcanic tremors were detected on 10, 17, and 30 June, and on 27 July.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan


October 2001 (BGVN 26:10) Cite this Report


Short-term increase in seismic activity during April-May 2001

On 29 May 2001 the Fukushima Local Meteorological Observatory reported that seismicity increased slightly beneath Azuma during the month. The seismic network maintained by the Coordinating Committee for the Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions detected 51 small volcanic earthquakes during 21-22 May and 39 events on 21 May (the most recorded in one day since November 1998). During March four low-frequency tremor events were recorded, and 40 were detected in April. The observatory last reported that by 22 May, local residents had felt 33 earthquakes.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan; The Japan Times; 5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0023, Central P.O. Box 144, 352, Tokyo 100-8691 (URL: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/).

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
283180

1977 CE

1949 m / 6393 ft

37.735°N
140.244°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano(es)
Shield(s)
Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
128
907
548,195
4,877,648

Geological Summary

The Azumayama volcanic group consists of a cluster of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. The andesitic and basaltic complex was constructed in two E-W rows above a relatively high basement of Tertiary sedimentary rocks and granodiorites west of Fukushima city. Volcanic activity has migrated to the east, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being the youngest. The symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic area on the flank of Issaikyo volcano are popular tourist destinations. The Azumayama complex contains several crater lakes, including Goshikinuma and Okenuma. Historical eruptions, mostly small phreatic explosions, have been restricted to Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashiyama group.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Hasenaka T, Ui T, Nakamura Y, Hayashi S, 1992. Traverse of Quaternary volcanoes in Japan. 29th Internatl Geol Cong, Kyoto, Field Trip A06, 74 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Kudo T, Hoshizumi H, 2006-. Catalog of eruptive events within the last 10,000 years in Japan, database of Japanese active volcanoes. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db099/eruption/index.html.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Sumi K, Takashima I, 1976. Absolute ages of the hydrothermal alteration halos and associated volcanic rocks in some Japanese geothermal fields. In: {Proc 2nd United Nations Symp Devel Use Geotherm Resour, San Francisco}, 1: 625-634.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1977 Dec 7 1977 Dec 7 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Issaikyo (Oana)
[ 1966 May ] [ 1966 Aug ] Uncertain 1   Issaikyo (Oana)
[ 1952 Jun 18 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1   Issaikyo
1950 Feb 10 1950 Feb 19 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Issaikyo (Oana and NW of Oana)
[ 1914 Nov 12 ] [ 1914 Nov 14 ± 1 days ] Uncertain 1   Issaikyo
[ 1896 Sep 5 ] [ 1896 Sep 19 ] Uncertain 1  
1895 Mar 8 1895 Sep 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Issaikyo (near Oana)
1894 Mar 16 1894 Apr 12 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Issaikyo (near Oana)
1893 Nov 9 1893 Nov 10 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Issaikyo
1893 May 19 1893 Jul 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Issaikyo (west of Oana)
[ 1844 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1   Issaikyo (Oana)
1800 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Issaikyo (Oana)
1711 (?) Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Issaikyo (Oana area)
1331 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Issaikyo, Az-OA tephra
0600 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Az-JP6 tephra
0150 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Issaikyo, Az-JP5 tephra
0950 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Issaikyo, Az-JP4 tephra
1800 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Issaikyo, Az-JP3 tephra
2750 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Issaikyo, Az-JP2 tephra
3000 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Radiocarbon (corrected) Issaikyo, Az-IS tephra
4150 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Azuma Ko-Fuji, Az-KF tephra
4550 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Issaikyo-Minami, Az-JP1 tephra
5400 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshiki-numa, Az-GS tephra
5700 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) Oke-numa, Az-OK tephra

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Azuma

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Azuma-Kofuji
    Azuma-Kohuzi
Cone 1705 m
Higashi-Azuma Cone 1975 m 37° 44' 0" N 140° 15' 0" E
Higashi-Daiten Cone 1928 m
Iegata-yama Cone
Issaikyo Cone 1949 m
Kabuto-yama Cone 1893 m
Naka-Azuma Cone 1931 m
Nishi-Azuma Cone 2035 m 37° 44' 0" N 140° 9' 0" E
Nishi-Daiten Cone 1982 m
Taka-yama
    Ko-yama
Cone 1805 m

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Goshiki-numa
    Gosiki-numa
Crater 1760 m
Menuma Crater 600 m
Oana Crater
Oke-numa Crater 1600 m

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Nusuyu Dome
Takayu Dome
Tuchiyu Dome
Ubayu Dome

Photo Gallery


The symmetrical cone of Azuma Ko-Fuji, truncated by a 300-m-wide crater, is one of many volcanic features of the Azuma volcanic complex. The Azuma volcano group consists of a cluster of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. Volcanic activity has migrated to the east, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being the youngest. This photo was taken from the NW on the flanks of Issaikyo-yama, which has been the site of all historical eruptions (mostly small phreatic explosions) from the Azuma complex.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1988 (Smithsonian Institution).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Azumayama Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.