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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 38.729°N
  • 140.734°E

  • 470 m
    1542 ft

  • 283200
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Naruko.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Naruko.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Naruko.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



837 CE

470 m / 1542 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)

Rock Types


Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Naruko is a poorly defined, 5.5 x 7 km caldera NW of the city of Sendai. The caldera, formed during eruptions about 73,000 and 45,000 years ago, contains a cluster of four dacitic lava domes of Holocene age surrounding the 400-m-wide lake-filled Katanuma crater. The highest of the low, but steep-sided lava domes, Ogadake, lies SE of the lake and reaches only 470 m above sea level. Ogadake and Kurumigadake domes are capped by conglomerates and mudstones uplifted during dome growth. The only known eruption in historical time occurred in 837 CE. Water vapor and sulfur-dioxide gas emission occurs from Shurado crater on Toyagamori lava dome west of the lake and from the bottom of the crater lake, which is one of the most acidic in Japan, with a pH of 1.6. Solfataras are found on the western shore of Katanuma, and sulfur is mined from sediments on the lake floor.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Ban M, Takahashi K, Horie T, Toya N, 2005. Petrogenesis of mafic inclusions in rhyolitic lavas from Narugo volcano, northeastern Japan. J Petr, 46: 1543-1563.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Japan Association Quaternary Research, 1987. Quaternary Maps of Japan: Landforms, Geology, and Tectonics. Tokyo: Univ Tokyo Press.

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST,

Sumi K, Takashima I, 1976. Absolute ages of the hydrothermal alteration halos and associated volcanic rocks in some Japanese geothermal fields. In: {Proc 2nd United Nations Symp Devel Use Geotherm Resour, San Francisco}, 1: 625-634.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0837 May 27 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
0800 BCE (in or before) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1350 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1400 BCE (in or before) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
4400 BCE (after) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.




Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Katanuma Crater


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kurumiga-dake Dome 461 m 38° 43' 59" N 140° 43' 54" E
Dome 370 m
Oga-take Dome 470 m
Toyagamori Dome 396 m

Photo Gallery

Katanuma lake in Narugo caldera is seen from its NW shore with Oga-dake lava dome forming the peak in the distance on the right-center horizon. Oga-dake, the highest of a cluster of lava domes surrounding the lake, is only 470 m above sea level. Katanuma is one of the most acidic crater lakes in Japan, with a pH of 1.6, and sulfur is mined from sediments on the lake floor. Narugo (also known as Naruko) is a poorly defined, 5.5 x 7 km caldera NW of the city of Sendai; its only known historical eruption took place in 837 AD.

Copyrighted photo by Jun'ichi Itoh (Japanese Quaternary Volcanoes database, RIODB, and Geol Surv Japan, AIST,

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 2 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 108980-22 Dacite
NMNH 117455-49 Obsidian

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Naruko Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.