Zavaritzki Caldera

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 46.925°N
  • 151.95°E

  • 624 m
    2047 ft

  • 290180
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Zavaritzki Caldera.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Zavaritzki Caldera.

Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) No fumarolic activity

03/1989 (SEAN 14:03) Gas emission near the 1957 dome; caldera lake

Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) No fumarolic activity

No apparent fumarolic or solfataric activity was observed [during an aerial inspection of Kuril Island volcanoes on 20 September 1981].

Information Contact: G. Steinberg, Sakhalin Complex Institute.

03/1989 (SEAN 14:03) Gas emission near the 1957 dome; caldera lake

During a 14 January overflight, strong gas emission was observed near the 1957 dome, in the N part of the caldera. A lake occupied the caldera center.

Information Contacts: G. Steinberg, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.

Zavaritzki volcano in central Simushir Island contains three nested calderas of 10-, 8-, and 3-km diameter. The steep-walled youngest caldera was formed during the Holocene and contains a lake whose surface is about 40 m elevation and whose bottom lies about 30 m below sea level. Several young cones and lava domes are located near the margins of Biryuzovoe caldera lake. Lacustrine sediments overlying pumice deposits indicate that an earlier caldera lake lay at 200 m above sea level, well above the present lake surface. Two eruptions have occurred at Zavaritzki during the 20th century. A lava dome that was emplaced sometime between 1916 and 1931 forms a small island in the northern part of the caldera lake. In 1957, a new 350-m-wide, 40-m-high dome was emplaced following explosive eruptions, decreasing the size of the caldera lake.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1957 Nov 12 1957 Dec 1 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations North end of caldera lake
1923 ± 8 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations North end of caldera lake

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Midori | Midoriiko
Zavaritzky volcano contains three nested calderas of 10, 8, and 3 km diameter. The steep-walled youngest caldera is seen here in an aerial view taken before a 1957 eruption that created a new lava dome, which decreased the size of the caldera lake. A breached scoria cone (top center in this view with north to the right) forms a peninsula on the north side of the caldera. A small lava dome in the center of the breached crater and the small lava-dome island at the lower right were emplaced sometime between 1916 and 1931.

Photo courtesy of G.S. Gorshkov, Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk (published in Green and Short, 1971).
Biryuzovoe caldera lake partially fills the youngest of three nested calderas truncating Zavaritzki volcano in central Simushir Island of the southern Kurils. The largest caldera is 10 km wide. The surface of the lake in the 3-km-wide youngest caldera is at about 40 m elevation, and its bottom lies about 30 m below sea level. The small lava dome below the bottom side of the lake in this International Space Station view (with north to the lower left) was emplaced during a 1957 eruption that decreased the size of the caldera lake.

NASA International Space Station image ISS-5-E-6512, 2002 (

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Erlich E N, 1986. Geology of the calderas of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands with comparison to calderas of Japan and the Aleutians, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 86-291: 1-300.

Gorshkov G S, 1958. Kurile Islands. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 7: 1-99.

Gorshkov G S, 1970. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle; Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp, 385 p.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)
Scoria cone

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Zavaritzki Caldera Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.