Nemo Peak

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 49.57°N
  • 154.808°E

  • 1018 m
    3339 ft

  • 290320
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Nemo Peak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Nemo Peak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Nemo Peak.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



1938 CE

1018 m / 3339 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Intermediate crust (15-25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Nemo Peak volcano at the northern end of Onekotan Island in the northern Kuriles is truncated by two nested calderas of preglacial age, the largest of which is 10 km in diameter and extends to the northern coast. A third 5-km-wide caldera formed about 25,000 years ago by collapse of an interglacial cone that was constructed over the glaciated surfaces of the earlier calderas. The 1018-m-high central cone of Nemo Peak is composed of two coalescing andesitic cones that were constructed at the SW side of the youngest caldera and formed in four stages beginning in the early Holocene about 9500 years ago. Construction of the central cone has left the crescent-shaped Chernoe Lake at the NE end of the youngest caldera; lava flows from Nemo Peak form the broad SW shoreline of the lake. The final activity built a lava dome that completely overtops a 350-m-wide crater and has a 150-m-wide crater at its summit. Historical eruptions of Nemo Peak date back to the early-18th century.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1995. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia. Bull Volc, 57: 383-402.

Erlich E N, 1986. Geology of the calderas of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands with comparison to calderas of Japan and the Aleutians, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 86-291: 1-300.

Gorshkov G S, 1958. Kurile Islands. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 7: 1-99.

Gorshkov G S, 1970. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle; Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp, 385 p.

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Kiryanov V Y, 1990. History of eruptive activity and predicting impending eruptions of the peak Nemo volcano on the Onekotan Island, Kuriles. IAVCEI 1993 Internatl Volc Cong, Mainz, Abs, (unpaginated).

Melekestsev I V, Volynets O N, Antonov A Y, 1997. Nemo III caldera (Onekotan I., the northern Kuriles): Structure, 14C age, dynamics of the caldera-forming eruption, evolution of juvenile products. Volc Seism, 19: 41-64 (English translation).

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1938 Aug 12 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1932 (?) ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     SE flank
1906 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1710 ± 10 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1350 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0750 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0550 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
1850 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
3050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
5550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
7050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
7550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Amka-Usyr | Nesige | Nemo-san

Photo Gallery

Steep-sided Nemo Peak, seen here from the south, is the northernmost of two large volcanoes forming Onekotan Island. The 1018-m-high compound central cone of Nemo Peak formed in four stages beginning in the early Holocene. Construction of the cone within the youngest of three large calderas has left a crescent-shaped lake at the NE end of this 5-km-wide caldera. The final activity built a lava dome in the 350-m-wide summit crater. Historical eruptions of Nemo Peak date back to the early-18th century.

Photo by Yoshihiro Ishizuka, 2000 (Hokkaido University).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Nemo Peak in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Nemo Peak Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.