Kurile Lake

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 51.45°N
  • 157.12°E

  • 81 m
    266 ft

  • 300023
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

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Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



6440 BCE

81 m / 266 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)
Tuff cone(s)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Kurile Lake caldera is one of the most impressive volcanic features in Kamchatka. It lies within the eastern part of the massive Pauzhetka caldera, but is considered as a separate volcanic system here. The low-rimmed Kurile Lake caldera was formed in two stages during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The first caldera-forming eruption took place about 41,500 radiocarbon years ago. The second episode of caldera formation occurred about 7600 radiocarbon years ago during one of the world's largest Holocene eruptions. A total of 140-170 cu km of material was ejected, and extensive thick pyroclastic-flow deposits from the caldera-forming eruptions blanket the countryside. Ash from the eruption, one of the world's largest during the Holocene, fell more than 1000 km away on the Asia mainland. The eruption resulted in the formation of an 8 x 14 km wide caldera, now largely filled by Kurile Lake. The steep-sided Serdtze Alaida (Heart of Alaid), which forms a small island rising 300 m from the caldera floor in the center of the lake, is a rhyodacitic lava dome that formed at the end of the caldera-forming eruption.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Bindeman I N, Leonov V L, Izbekov P E, Ponomareva V V, Watts K E, Shipley N K, Perepelov A B, Bazanova L I, Jicha B R, Singer B S, Schmitt A K, Portnyagin M V, Chen C H, 2010. Large-volume silicic volcanism in Kamchatka: Ar-Ar and U- Pb ages, isotopic, and geochemical characteristics of major pre-Holocene caldera-forming eruptions. J Volc Geotherm Res, 189: 57-80.

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1995. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia. Bull Volc, 57: 383-402.

Braitseva O, Ponomareva V, Melekestsev I, Sulerzhitsky L, Pevzner M, 2002-. Holocene Kamchatka volcanoes. http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/volcanoes/holocene/main/main.htm.

Erlich E N, 1986. Geology of the calderas of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands with comparison to calderas of Japan and the Aleutians, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 86-291: 1-300.

Kirianov V Y, Egorova I A, Litasova S N, 1986. Volcanic ash on Bering Island (Commander Islands) and Kamchatka Holocene eruptions. Volc Seism, 1986(6): 18-28 (English translation 1990, 8: 850-868).

Kozhemyaka N N, 1979. Quaternary pumice, tuff-ignimbrite fields and centers of eruption in southern Kamchatka. Akad Nauk SSSR, Sibirsk Otdeleniye Byull Vulk Stantsii, 57: 26-38 (in Russian).

Masurenkov Y P (ed), 1980. Volcanic Center: Structure, Dynamics and Products. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 299 p (in Russian).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Sulerzhitskiy L D, 1988. Catastrophic explosive volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands in late Pleistocene-early Holocene time. Trans (Doklady) USSR Acad Sci Earth Sci, 300: 55-59.

Ponomareva V V, Kyle P R, Melekestsev I V, Rinkleff P G, Dirksen O V, Sulerzhitsky L D, Zaretskaia N E, Rourke R, 2004. The 7600 (14C) year BP Kurile Lake caldera-forming eruption, Kamchatka, Russia: stratigraphy and field relationships. J Volc Geotherm Res, 136: 199-222.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
6440 BCE ± 25 years Unknown Confirmed 7 Radiocarbon (corrected) Tephra layer KO
7550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Kurilskoe, Lake | Kuril Lake


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chayachii Dome
Serdtze Alaida
    Heart of Alaid
Tugumynk Dome