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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 53.905°N
  • 158.07°E

  • 2278 m
    7472 ft

  • 300123
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Bakening.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Bakening.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Bakening.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



550 BCE

2278 m / 7472 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Bakening volcano (also known as Bakenin) lies well west of the eastern volcanic range of Kamchatka, at the head of the Srednyaya Avacha River, about 100 km NNW of Petropavlovsk. Most of the volcano is of Pleistocene age, and subglacial rhyodacitic tuyas are located on the NW flanks. The 2278-m-high andesitic stratovolcano has dacitic lava domes at its north and NE base, the latest of which (Novo Bakening) formed about 9000-10,000 years ago. A large horseshoe-shaped depression on the SE flank was the source of a large debris avalanche about 8000-8500 years ago that traveled 11 km to the east and south. The avalanche, which dammed drainages forming two lakes NE and east of the volcano, was followed by an explosive eruption and a block-and-ash flow. Several late-Pleistocene to Holocene cinder cones are located on the northern-to-southern flanks of the volcano. The latest dated activity consisted of the construction of a cinder cone at the western foot of the volcano about 2500 year ago.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Braitseva O A, Pevzner M M, 2001. Novo-Bakening volcano of Kamchatka: its age and tephra stratigraphy. Volc Seism, 22: 581-594 (English translation).

Braitseva O, Ponomareva V, Melekestsev I, Sulerzhitsky L, Pevzner M, 2002-. Holocene Kamchatka volcanoes.

Dorendorf F, Churikova T, Koloskov A, Worner G, 2000. Late Pleistocene to Holocene activity at Bakening volcano and surrounding monogenetic centers (Kamchatka): volcanic geology and geochemical evolution. J Volc Geotherm Res, 104: 131-151.

Melekestsev I V, Dirksen O V, Girina O A, 1999. A giant landslide-explosion cirque and a debris avalanche at Bakening volcano, Kamchatka. Volc Seism, 20: 265-279 (English translation).

Ponomareva V V, Melekestsev I V, Dirksen O V, 2006. Sector collapses and large landslides on late Pleistocene-Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 117-138.

Tomkeieff S I, 1949. The volcanoes of Kamchatka. Bull Volc, 8: 87-114.

Vlasov G M, 1967. Kamchatka, Kuril, and Komandorskiye Islands: geological description. In: {Geol of the USSR}, Moscow, 31: 1-827.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0550 BCE Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Western flank
1550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology SE flank
6300 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
6550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology West of Bakening
7550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology NE flank (Novo-Bakening)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Bakang | Kamchatka Peak | Bakkenin | Bakenin | Bakangin


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Novo-Bakening Dome

Photo Gallery

Three dacitic lava domes form the small peaks in the foreground of this view of the north flank of Bakenin volcano. Andesitic lava flows from the central cone of Bakenin overlie the lava domes.

Photo by Pavel Kepezhinskas (University of Southern Florida).
Bakening, seen here from the north, is a 2277-m-high stratovolcano NW of Petropavlovsk. The volcano lies near the headwaters of the Srednaya Avacha River, well to the west of the eastern volcanic range of Kamchatka. Dacitic lava domes occur at the base of Bakening. About 8500-8000 years ago the summit of the volcano collapsed, producing a large debris avalanche to the SE.

Photo by Pavel Kepezhinskas (University of Southern Florida).
Bakening volcano, seen here from the north, rises above a basement of metamorphic greenschists, which underlie the forested slopes in the center of the photo. The lake in the foreground and another small lake were formed within the metamorphic terrain when landslides dammed river drainages. Andesitic lava flows overlie dacitic lava domes at the base of the volcano, which is located far west of the eastern volcanic range of Kamchatka.

Photo by Pavel Kepezhinskas, 1993 (University of Southern Florida).
Karymsky volcano contained a 250-m-wide summit crater following the 1970-82 eruption. Karymsky Lake fills the 3 x 5 km wide Akademia Nauk caldera to the south in this early 1990's aerial photo. Both Karymsky and Akademia Nauk volcanoes erupted simultaneously on January 2, 1996. The brief one-day eruption was the first historical eruption of Akademia Nauk, but long-term explosive activity continued at Karymsky, one of Kamchatka's most active volcanoes.

Photo by Dan Miller (U.S. Geological Survey).
An eruption plume rises above the summit of Karymsky volcano in January 1996. Explosive eruptions began on January 2 from the summit and SW flank of Karymsky volcano. On the same day a powerful explosive eruption took place from Akademia Nauk (Karymsky Lake) caldera, the circular, smooth-textured area to the right of Karymsky's summit. The Akademia Nauk eruption lasted only a day, but long-term activity continued at Karymsky.

Photo by Nikolai Smelov, 1996 (courtesy of Vera Ponomareva, Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Bakening in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Bakening Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.