This symmetrical stratovolcano, one of the most scenic in Kamchatka, lies between the Pacific Ocean and Lake Kronotsky, Kamchatka's largest lake. The lake formed at the end of the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Holocene when extensive lava flows on the south side of Kronotsky volcano dammed the Listvenichnaya River. The flanks of the massive 3528-m-high volcano, one of the largest in Kamchatka, are dissected by radial valleys up to 200 m deep. A volcanic neck plugs the summit crater. Cinder cones are found on the north and primarily on the SE and SW flanks. Kronotsky lavas have been dominantly basaltic, with the exception of the small basaltic-andesite summit lava extrusion and a flank lava flow. Weak phreatic eruptions took place in the 20th century.
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.
Fedotov S A, Masurenkov Y P (eds), 1991. Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 2 volumes.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Kozhemyaka N N, 1995. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka: types and growth time of cones, total volumes of erupted material, productivity, and composition of rocks. Volc Seism, 16: 581-594 (English translation).
Luchitsky I V (ed), 1974. History of the Development of Relief of Siberia and the Far East. Kamchatka, Kurile and Komander Islands. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 439 p (in Russian).
Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.