Black Peak

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  • United States
  • Alaska
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1900 BCE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 56.552°N
  • 158.785°W

  • 1032 m
    3385 ft

  • 312080
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Black Peak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Black Peak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Black Peak.

The highly eroded stratovolcano and lava dome complex of Black Peak was constructed within an ice-free mid-Holocene caldera with two small caldera lakes on the northern and eastern sides. The pre-caldera volcano consists of andesitic-dacitic lava domes, lava flows, and volcaniclastic rocks that were constructed over a basement of Pliocene volcanogenic sedimentary rocks. Ash-flow tuffs and block-and-ash-flow deposits from the >10 cu km caldera-forming eruption, which occurred less than about 4000 years ago, fill the Ash Creek and Bluff Creek valleys to the west and north to depths of as much as 100 m. Most of the 3.5-km-wide caldera floor is occupied by a complex of nested dacitic lava domes and associated lava flows centered in the southern part of the caldera.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1900 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 6 Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Purple
The outcrop seen here is not a sand dune, but a thick ash-flow deposit from an eruption that formed a small caldera on the eastern edge of Black Peak volcano. This major eruption occurred about 4200 to 4700 years ago, and filled adjacent valleys to depths of up to 100 m. The ice-free caldera of the highly eroded Black Peak volcano contains two small lakes and a complex of nested dacitic lava domes.

Photo by Tom Miller, 1985 (Alaska Volcano Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey).
Most of the 3.5-km-wide caldera floor of Black Peak volcano, located NW of Chignik Bay, is occupied by a complex of nested dacitic lava domes, seen here in an aerial view within the caldera. The ice-free mid-Holocene caldera contains two small lakes. Ash-flow tuffs and block-and-ash-flow deposits from the >10-cu-km caldera-forming eruption, which occurred less than about 4000 years ago, fill the Ash Creek and Bluff Creek valleys to the west and north.

Photo courtesy of Alaska Volcano Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey, 1979.

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Burk C A, 1965. Geology of the Alaska Peninsula-island arc and continental margin (Part 1). Geol Soc Amer Mem, 99: 1-250.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Miller T P, Smith R L, 1987. Late Quaternary caldera-forming eruptions in the eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska. Geology, 15: 434-438.

Motyka R J, Liss S A, Nye C J, Moorman M A, 1993. Geothermal resources of the Aleutian arc. Alaska Div Geol Geophys Surv, Prof Rpt, no 114, 17 p and 4 map sheets.

Riehle J R, Waitt R B, Meyer C E, Calk L C, 1998. Age of formation of Kaguyak caldera, eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska, estimated by tephrochronology. In: Gray J E, Riehle J R (eds) {Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1996}, US Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1595: 161-168.

Smith R L, Shaw H R, Luedke R G, Russell S L, 1978. Comprehensive tables giving physical data and thermal energy estimates for young igneous systems of the United States. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 78-925: 1-25.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
0
478

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Black Peak Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.