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Trident

Photo of this volcano
  • United States
  • Alaska
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1974 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 58.236°N
  • 155.1°W

  • 1864 m
    6115 ft

  • 312160
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: December 1968 (CSLP 61-68)

Large earthquakes and extensive ashfall observed; lava plug destroyed

Card 0276-0277 (09 December 1968) Ashfall covering snow extends 60 miles

"On November 21, beginning at approximately 2100Z, an extensive low-level reconaissance was performed by this agancy in a Cessna 180 aircraft. Our immediate route to the coastal area disclosed a light ash cover extending to the NW of Mount Trident. An investigation of this ash cover, on top of snow, revealed that it did originate from Mount Trident and extended for a distance of approximately 60 miles and had a fan width of approximately three miles at its termini. Medium-sized bombs were observed for an estimated radius of 1/2 mile around the cone. Mt. Trident was completely clear of its usually prominent plug. There was no sign of a recent lava flow. Smoke and steam were not an obstruction. A series of 35 mm color slides were taken of the Mount Trident cone, showing clearly the absence of the plug. Dated photographs, showing the presence and absence of the plug are on file. It is impossible to ascertain the exact period of this outburst, but it could appropriately be narrowed to the immediate 14 days preceeding the date of observation.

"The continued reconnaisance of Cape Douglas revealed no sign of surface disturbance; snow ridges were intact and no other indications of activity were discovered. The coastal beaches did appear to have suffered from an extremely high water disturbance within the recent couple of days. Driftwood was unusually high and a large amount of sea life was observed stranded. Starfish, clams, and scallops were abundant."

Card 0295-0296 (16 December 1968) Six relatively large earthquakes during 11-29 November

"The seismic telemeter network has recorded several relatively large earthquakes in the area of the Katmai National Monument during the month of November. Dates and magnitudes are as follows: 11 November, M 4.0; 20 November, M 5.1; 21 November, M 3.6; 23 November, M 4.8; 27 November, M 4.8; 29 November, M 3.9. We only locate shocks if the P-arrivals are clearly seen on three stations of the network; however, numerous smaller quakes with S-P times of the right order have been seen on the Big Mountain (BIG) and Sparevohn (SVW) stations during October. Roland Johnson from our Institute reported a very strong infrasonic signal on the 14th of November approaching the Fairbanks array system from 208°E of north (the direction from the Katmai area) at 0406 GMT. The seismic network recorded an earthquake at 0335 in SVW only with about the correct S-P time for the Katmai area (the closer station, BIG, was disconnected at that time)."

Information Contacts: Card 0276-0277 (09 December 1968)Thomas E. Atwood, Ranger-in-Charge, Katmai National Monument, King Salmon AK, USA.
Card 0295-0296 (16 December 1968)Ed Berg, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, College AK, USA.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Trident.

Bulletin Reports - Index

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

12/1968 (CSLP 61-68) Large earthquakes and extensive ashfall observed; lava plug destroyed




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


December 1968 (CSLP 61-68)

Large earthquakes and extensive ashfall observed; lava plug destroyed

Card 0276-0277 (09 December 1968) Ashfall covering snow extends 60 miles

"On November 21, beginning at approximately 2100Z, an extensive low-level reconaissance was performed by this agancy in a Cessna 180 aircraft. Our immediate route to the coastal area disclosed a light ash cover extending to the NW of Mount Trident. An investigation of this ash cover, on top of snow, revealed that it did originate from Mount Trident and extended for a distance of approximately 60 miles and had a fan width of approximately three miles at its termini. Medium-sized bombs were observed for an estimated radius of 1/2 mile around the cone. Mt. Trident was completely clear of its usually prominent plug. There was no sign of a recent lava flow. Smoke and steam were not an obstruction. A series of 35 mm color slides were taken of the Mount Trident cone, showing clearly the absence of the plug. Dated photographs, showing the presence and absence of the plug are on file. It is impossible to ascertain the exact period of this outburst, but it could appropriately be narrowed to the immediate 14 days preceeding the date of observation.

"The continued reconnaisance of Cape Douglas revealed no sign of surface disturbance; snow ridges were intact and no other indications of activity were discovered. The coastal beaches did appear to have suffered from an extremely high water disturbance within the recent couple of days. Driftwood was unusually high and a large amount of sea life was observed stranded. Starfish, clams, and scallops were abundant."

Card 0295-0296 (16 December 1968) Six relatively large earthquakes during 11-29 November

"The seismic telemeter network has recorded several relatively large earthquakes in the area of the Katmai National Monument during the month of November. Dates and magnitudes are as follows: 11 November, M 4.0; 20 November, M 5.1; 21 November, M 3.6; 23 November, M 4.8; 27 November, M 4.8; 29 November, M 3.9. We only locate shocks if the P-arrivals are clearly seen on three stations of the network; however, numerous smaller quakes with S-P times of the right order have been seen on the Big Mountain (BIG) and Sparevohn (SVW) stations during October. Roland Johnson from our Institute reported a very strong infrasonic signal on the 14th of November approaching the Fairbanks array system from 208°E of north (the direction from the Katmai area) at 0406 GMT. The seismic network recorded an earthquake at 0335 in SVW only with about the correct S-P time for the Katmai area (the closer station, BIG, was disconnected at that time)."

Information Contacts: Card 0276-0277 (09 December 1968)Thomas E. Atwood, Ranger-in-Charge, Katmai National Monument, King Salmon AK, USA.
Card 0295-0296 (16 December 1968)Ed Berg, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, College AK, USA.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 15 Holocene eruptive periods.

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1974 Jul 15 ± 45 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank
1968 Nov 13 1968 Nov 13 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank
1967 Sep 5 1968 Feb 25 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank
1966 Jul 2 (?) ± 182 days Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations SW flank
1964 May 31 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank
1963 Oct 17 1963 Nov 17 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank
1963 Apr 1 1963 Apr 3 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank
1962 Jun 9 1962 Jun 9 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank
1961 Jun 30 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW flank (1100 m)
1957 Jul 2 ± 182 days 1960 Aug 10 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW flank
1956 Sep 8 1956 Sep 9 Confirmed 2 Unknown Volcano Uncertain: attributed to Trident
1953 Feb 15 1954 Oct 5 (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank (1100 m)
1950 Jul 2 1950 Aug 18 Confirmed 2 Unknown Volcano Uncertain: attributed to Trident
1949 Jun Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1913 Sep Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
Deformation History

There is data available for 1 deformation periods. Expand each entry for additional details.


Deformation during 1995 - 2010 [Uplift; Observed by InSAR]

Start Date: 1995 Stop Date: 2010 Direction: Uplift Method: InSAR
Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: 20.00 km Latitude: 58.000 Longitude: -155.000

Remarks: A deformation signal near Martin, Mageik, and Trident volcanoes has been observed with InSAR. There is a gap in InSAR data coverage between 2000 and 2004, but the uplift is likely continuous.

Figure (see Caption)

Averaged deformation images of the Mount Martin?Mount Mageik area produced by stacking high- quality ERS-1 and ERS-2 interferograms for 1995?2000 from two ascending tracks, 021 and 250. Ellipse outlines an area of subsidence near Novarupta dome. A full cycle of colors (i.e., one interferometric fringe) represents 28 mm/year of LOS surface displacement. Areas of loss of InSAR coherence are not colored. See Fig. 6.197 for meanings of labels

From: Lu and Dzurisin 2014.


Reference List: Lu and Dzurisin 2014; Lu et al. 1997.

Full References:

Lu, Z., R. Fatland, M. Wyss, S. Li, J. Eichelberger, and K. Dean.,, 1997. Deformation of Volcanic Vents Detected by ERS 1 SAR Interferometry, Katmai National Park, Alaska,. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 695 698.

Lubis, A. M., 2014. Uplift of Kelud Volcano Prior to the November 2007 Eruption as Observed by L-Band Insar. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 46(3), 245-257.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Trident.

Photo Gallery

Trident volcano, seen here from Baked Mountain to its NW, was initially named for its three prominent summits. A series of eruptions from 1953 until 1968 constructed a fourth cone, which forms the prominent, smoother-surfaced peak at the right. The 3 peaks of Trident at the left are overlapping, glacially eroded stratovolcanoes. As many as 23 lava domes are found on the Trident volcanic complex. Fresh, blocky andesitic lava domes radiate from the new cone on the SW flank. The 1912 Novarupta lava dome is visible at the lower center.

Photo by Game McGimsey (U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Volcano Observatory).
See title for photo information.
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.

Title: Canada, United States
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: United States, Canada
Year: 1989
Series: ONC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Canada, United States
Title: Quat Geol, Ugashik, Bristol Bay, & W Karluk Quads
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1987
Series: MI
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Quat Geol, Ugashik, Bristol Bay, & W Karluk Quads
Title: Kodiak
Publisher: US Department of Commerce, NOAA National Ocean Service
Country: United States
Year: 1987
Series: Sectional Aero Chart
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of Kodiak
Title: Mt Katmai & Portions of Afognak, Naknek Quads, Geo
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1987
Series: OFR
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Mt Katmai & Portions of Afognak, Naknek Quads, Geo
Title: Map Showing Distribution, Composition, and Age of Late Cenozoic Volcanic Craters in Alaska
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1986
Series: Misc Investigations
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Map Showing Distribution, Composition, and Age of Late Cenozoic Volcanic Craters in Alaska
Title: Map Showing Distribution, Composition, and Age of Late Cenozoic Volcanic Craters in Alaska
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1986
Series: Misc Investigations
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Map Showing Distribution, Composition, and Age of Late Cenozoic Volcanic Craters in Alaska
Title: Mt Katmai (A-4)
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1984
Series: 63,360 Topo
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:63,360
Map of Mt Katmai (A-4)
Title: N Aleutian Basin, Gulf of AK
Publisher: USDI Minerals Management Service
Country: United States
Year: 1984
Series: OCSRM maps
Map Type: Bathymetric
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of N Aleutian Basin, Gulf of AK
Title: Mt Katmai, Shelikof Strait
Publisher: US Department of Commerce, NOAA National Ocean Service
Country: United States
Year: 1983
Map Type: Bathymetric
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Mt Katmai, Shelikof Strait
Title: Karluk, Shelikof Strait
Publisher: US Department of Commerce, NOAA National Ocean Service
Country: United States
Year: 1983
Map Type: Bathymetric
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Karluk, Shelikof Strait
Title: (1) XSect AK Peninsula-Kodiak-Aleutian Trench
Publisher: GSA
Country: United States
Year: 1979
Series: MC
Map Type: Geology (Cross-Section)
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of (1) XSect AK Peninsula-Kodiak-Aleutian Trench
Title: (2) XSect AK Peninsula-Kodiak-Aleutian Trench
Publisher: GSA
Country: United States
Year: 1979
Series: MC
Map Type: Geology (Cross-Section)
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of (2) XSect AK Peninsula-Kodiak-Aleutian Trench
Title: Mt Katmai (A-3)
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1977
Series: 63,360 Topo
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:63,360
Map of Mt Katmai (A-3)
Title: Mt Katmai Area, Geol Map & Structure Sections in
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1959
Series: B
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Mt Katmai Area, Geol Map & Structure Sections in
Title: Mt Katmai
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1951
Series: AK Topo 250
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Mt Katmai
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 6 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections, and may be availble for research (contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager). Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description Lava Source Collection Date
NMNH 117233-92 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 117233-93 Volcanic Rock -- --
NMNH 117233-94 Pumice -- --
NMNH 117233-95 Volcanic Ash -- --
NMNH 117233-97 Dacite Mt. Cerberus (dome) --
NMNH 117233-98 Dacite Falling Mt. (dome) --
Affiliated Sites