Novarupta

Photo of this volcano
  • United States
  • Alaska
  • Caldera
  • 1912 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 58.27°N
  • 155.157°W

  • 841 m
    2758 ft

  • 312180
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Novarupta.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Novarupta.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Novarupta.

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Novarupta.

Eruptive History


There is data available for 3 Holocene eruptive periods.


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1950 Jul 5 ± 4 days ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 1949 May 19 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1912 Jun 6 1912 Oct (?) Confirmed 6 Historical Observations

Deformation History


There is data available for 1 deformation periods. Expand each entry for additional details.


Deformation during 1995 - 2010 [subsidence; Observed by InSAR]

Start Date: 1995 Stop Date: 2010 Direction: subsidence Method: InSAR
Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: 5.00 km Latitude: 58.000 Longitude: -155.000

Remarks: Localized subsidence on the Novarupta dome is likely due to thermoelastic contraction of the dome and thick ashflow tuff. There is a gap in InSAR data coverage between 2000 and 2004, but the subsidence is likely continuous.

Averaged deformation images of the Mount Martin?Mount Mageik area produced by stacking high- quality ERS-1 and ERS-2 interferograms for 1995?2000 from two ascending tracks, 021 and 250. Ellipse outlines an area of subsidence near Novarupta dome. A full cycle of colors (i.e., one interferometric fringe) represents 28 mm/year of LOS surface displacement. Areas of loss of InSAR coherence are not colored. See Fig. 6.197 for meanings of labels

From: Lu and Dzurisin 2014.


Reference List: Lu and Dzurisin 2014.

Full References:

Lubis, A. M., 2014. Uplift of Kelud Volcano Prior to the November 2007 Eruption as Observed by L-Band Insar. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 46(3), 245-257.

Emission History


There is no Emissions History data available for Novarupta.

Photo Gallery


A 65-m-high, 380-m-wide lava dome lies within a circular ejecta ring and caps the 1912 vent of Novarupta volcano. A 60-hour-long eruption beginning on June 6, 1912, the Earth's largest eruption during the 20th century, produced The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes ash-flow deposit, which forms the flat ground at the right. The face of Falling Mountain, behind Novarupta dome, was sheared off by a 2-km-wide collapse around the Novarupta vent. This view from the NE shows snow-capped Mageik volcano in the background.

Photo by Tom Miller (U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Volcano Observatory).
See title for photo information.
Mount Mageik (left) and steaming Mount Martin (distant right) tower above the flat-bottomed floor of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS). The VTTS was formed by ash flows during the 1912 eruption of Novarupta volcano, the Earth's largest eruption of the 20th century. Glacier-clad Mount Mageik has a broad summit capped by 4 knobs, each of which is a spatter and lava-flow vent.

Photo by Game McGimsey (U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Volcano Observatory).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


The following 14 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections, and may be availble for research (contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager). Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description Lava Source Collection Date
NMNH 108924 Rhyolite -- --
NMNH 116660-1 Andesite-Dacite Pumice -- --
NMNH 116660-2 Andesite-Dacite Pumice -- --
NMNH 116660-3 Andesite Pumice -- --
NMNH 116660-5 Rhyolite Pumice -- --
NMNH 117233-84 Tuff -- --
NMNH 117233-85 Tuff -- --
NMNH 117233-86 Tuff -- --
NMNH 117233-87 Tuff -- --
NMNH 117259-20 Fumarole Deposit -- --
NMNH 117259-21 Fumarole Deposit -- --
NMNH 117259-22 Fumarole Deposit -- --
NMNH 117259-23 Fumarole Deposit -- 2 Aug 1919
NMNH 117259-24 Fumarole Deposit -- 2 Aug 1919

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