Novarupta

Photo of this volcano
  • United States
  • Alaska
  • Caldera
  • 1912 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 58.27°N
  • 155.157°W

  • 841 m
    2758 ft

  • 312180
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Novarupta.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Novarupta.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Novarupta.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1950 Jul 5 ± 4 days ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 1949 May 19 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1912 Jun 6 1912 Oct (?) Confirmed 6 Historical Observations

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Novarupta.

Photo Gallery


A 65-m-high, 380-m-wide lava dome lies within a circular ejecta ring and caps the 1912 vent of Novarupta volcano. A 60-hour-long eruption beginning on June 6, 1912, the Earth's largest eruption during the 20th century, produced The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes ash-flow deposit, which forms the flat ground at the right. The face of Falling Mountain, behind Novarupta dome, was sheared off by a 2-km-wide collapse around the Novarupta vent. This view from the NE shows snow-capped Mageik volcano in the background.

Photo by Tom Miller (U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Volcano Observatory).
See title for photo information.
Mount Mageik (left) and steaming Mount Martin (distant right) tower above the flat-bottomed floor of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS). The VTTS was formed by ash flows during the 1912 eruption of Novarupta volcano, the Earth's largest eruption of the 20th century. Glacier-clad Mount Mageik has a broad summit capped by 4 knobs, each of which is a spatter and lava-flow vent.

Photo by Game McGimsey (U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Volcano Observatory).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


The following 14 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 108924 Rhyolite
NMNH 116660-1 Andesite-dacite pumice
NMNH 116660-2 Andesite-dacite pumice
NMNH 116660-3 Andesite pumice
NMNH 116660-5 Rhyolite pumice
NMNH 117233-84 Tuff
NMNH 117233-85 Tuff
NMNH 117233-86 Tuff
NMNH 117233-87 Tuff with pumice and lapilli
NMNH 117259-20 Fumarole deposit
NMNH 117259-21 Fumarole deposit
NMNH 117259-22 Fumarole deposit
NMNH 117259-23 Fumarole deposit
NMNH 117259-24 Fumarole deposit

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