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  • United States
  • Alaska
  • Lava dome(s)
  • 3850 BCE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 58.608°N
  • 154.028°W

  • 901 m
    2955 ft

  • 312250
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Kaguyak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Kaguyak.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Kaguyak.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



3850 BCE

901 m / 2955 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The small, but spectacular, 2.5-km-wide Kaguyak caldera in the NE part of Katmai National Park is filled by a lake more than 180 m deep whose surface lies 550 m below the caldera rim. Though only 901 m high, the volcano rises directly from lowland areas near sea level south of the Big River. Initially considered to be a typical stratovolcano truncated by a caldera, the pre-caldera edifice has been shown to consist of nine contiguous late-Pleistocene lava dome clusters, most of which lie east of the present caldera. A large post-caldera lava dome extends into the lake on the SW side and another dome forms a small island in the center of the lake. The youthful caldera is unglaciated, and distal tephras from the caldera-forming eruption have been radiocarbon dated at about 5800 years before present. Voluminous dacitic pyroclastic-flow deposits surround the caldera and reached Shelikof Strait to the SE.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Fierstein J, 2007. Explosive eruptive record in the Katmai region, Alaska Peninsula: an overview. Bull Volc, 69: 469-509.

Fierstein J, Hildreth W, 2008. Kaguyak dome field and its Holocene caldera, Alaska Peninsula. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 301-312.

Henning R A, Rosenthal C H, Olds B, Reading E (eds), 1976. Alaska's volcanoes, northern link in the ring of fire. Alaska Geog, 4: 1-88.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Motyka R J, Liss S A, Nye C J, Moorman M A, 1993. Geothermal resources of the Aleutian arc. Alaska Div Geol Geophys Surv, Prof Rpt, no 114, 17 p and 4 map sheets.

Riehle J R, Waitt R B, Meyer C E, Calk L C, 1998. Age of formation of Kaguyak caldera, eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska, estimated by tephrochronology. In: Gray J E, Riehle J R (eds) {Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1996}, US Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1595: 161-168.

Smith R L, Shaw H R, Luedke R G, Russell S L, 1978. Comprehensive tables giving physical data and thermal energy estimates for young igneous systems of the United States. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 78-925: 1-25.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
3850 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kaguyak caldera
4060 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Kaguyak.

Photo Gallery

The small, but spectacular 2.5-km-wide Kaguyak caldera,seen here from the west, is filled by a lake that lies more than 550 m below the caldera rim. A post-caldera lava dome extends into the lake on the SW side and another dome forms a small island in the center of the lake. The caldera is unglaciated and the voluminous caldera-forming deposits have been radiocarbon dated at at 5800 years ago. A large pre-caldera lava dome forms the high point on the east caldera rim. The broad valley of Big River descends to Shelikof Strait at the upper right.

Photo by Chris Nye, 1982 (Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Alaska Volcano Observatory).
Fourpeaked volcano, the 2104-m-high glacier-covered peak at the upper left is one of a group of poorly known volcanoes NE of Katmai National Park. Much of the volcano's surface is hidden beneath Fourpeaked Glacier; the few exposed outcrops are lava flows interlayered with volcanic agglomerate. Rocks near the summit are extensively hydrothermally altered. The age of the volcano is not known. In the foreground is the dramatic young, 2.5-km-wide Kaguyak caldera, filled by a lake and 3 lava domes.

Photo by Chris Nye (Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Alaska Volcano Observatory).
Snow and ice covers the surface of the lake filling Kaguyak caldera in this view from the NW. The caldera was formed during a voluminous eruption about 5800 years ago that produced pyroclastic flows that reached Shelikof Strait. Two lava domes, one large and the other just sticking above the center of the lake were formed some time after the caldera-forming eruption, following formation of a shallow lake.

Photo by Tom Miller, 1998 (U.S. Geological Survey and Alaska Volcano Observatory).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 9 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 117233-65 Tuff
NMNH 117233-66 Pumice
NMNH 117233-67 Dacite
NMNH 117233-68 Tuff
NMNH 117233-69 Tuff
NMNH 117233-70 Pumice
NMNH 117233-71 Pumice
NMNH 117233-72 Pumice
NMNH 117233-73 Pumice

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Kaguyak Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.