Nunivak Island

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  • United States
  • Alaska
  • Shield
  • Unknown - Evidence Credible
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 60.02°N
  • 166.33°W

  • 511 m
    1676 ft

  • 314020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Nunivak Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Nunivak Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Nunivak Island.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Evidence Credible

511 m / 1676 ft


Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Nunivak Island contains about 60 cinder cones and four maars; the surface of the island consists dominantly of thin pahoehoe lava flows that form a carapace over Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The 110-km-wide permafrost-covered island lies about 30 km off the coast of SW Alaska. The widespread, thin pahoehoe lava flows originate from small shield volcanoes and cover much of the island, which is dotted throughout by cinder cones and other vents. Two of the maars have about 200 m of relief, with floors near sea level. Eruptions occurred during 5 broad periods of activity that began 6.1 million years ago and continued into the Holocene. The bulk of the >427 cu km volcanic field was formed during two Pleistocene eruptive periods that ended about 300,000 years ago. The most recent eruptions at Nunivak produced a series of alkalic basalt lava flows and ash deposits from cinder cones and maars along an E-W zone in the southern part of the island.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Hoare J M, Condon W H, Cox A, Dalrymple G B, 1968. Geology, paleomagnetism and potassium-argon ages of basalts [Nunivak Island]. Geol Soc Amer Mem, 116: 377-414.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Smith R L, Shaw H R, Luedke R G, Russell S L, 1978. Comprehensive tables giving physical data and thermal energy estimates for young igneous systems of the United States. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 78-925: 1-25.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Nunivak Island. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Nunivak Island page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ahding Ingrid Mountain Cone 195 m 60° 8' 0" N 166° 35' 0" W
Ikathiwik Crater Cone - Crater 214 m 60° 14' 0" N 166° 15' 0" W
Indooli Mountain Cone 195 m 60° 3' 0" N 166° 38' 0" W
Ingri Butte Cone 145 m 60° 2' 0" N 167° 11' 0" W
Ingrijoak Hills Cone 145 m 60° 19' 0" N 166° 17' 0" W
Ingrilukat-Naskorat Hill Cone 286 m 60° 8' 0" N 166° 25' 0" W
Ingriruk Hill Cone 152 m 60° 5' 0" N 167° 13' 0" W
Jiskooksnuk Hill Cone 153 m 60° 6' 0" N 166° 56' 0" W
Kikdooli Butte Cone 225 m 60° 3' 0" N 166° 43' 0" W
Kikikyak Hill Cone 233 m 60° 9' 0" N 166° 32' 0" W
Kimijooksuk Butte Cone 223 m 60° 11' 0" N 166° 11' 0" W
Kimiksthek Hill Cone 187 m 60° 6' 0" N 167° 2' 0" W
Kimikthak Hills Cone 62 m 60° 21' 0" N 166° 10' 0" W
Kiolik Hill Cone 130 m 60° 17' 0" N 166° 30' 0" W
Roberts Mountain Cone 511 m 60° 1' 0" N 166° 17' 0" W
Seemalik Butte Cone 264 m 60° 9' 0" N 167° 8' 0" W
Twin Mountain Cone 191 m 60° 2' 0" N 165° 43' 0" W


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ahkiwiksnuk Maar 60° 2' 0" N 166° 11' 0" W
Binalik Maar 60° 2' 0" N 166° 12' 0" W
Nanwaksjiak Maar 60° 2' 0" N 166° 5' 0" W

Photo Gallery

Low-angle sun accentuates small pyroclastic cones on snow-covered Nunivak Island. Shelf ice modifies the apparent northern coastline (top) in this January 1992 Space Shuttle image. The 110-km-wide island lies about 30 km off the coast of SW Alaska and contains about 60 cinder cones and four maars. Although the bulk of the volcanic field was formed during two Pleistocene eruptive periods ending about 300,000 years ago, activity continued into the Holocene. The latest eruptions occurred along an E-W line in the southern part of the island.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS42-82-33, 1992 (

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 5 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 111580 Basalt
NMNH 111581 Basalt
NMNH 111582 Basalt
NMNH 111583 Basalt
NMNH 111584 Basalt

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Nunivak Island Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.