Tseax River Cone

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 55.12°N
  • 128.9°W

  • 609 m
    1998 ft

  • 320100
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Tseax River Cone.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Tseax River Cone.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Tseax River Cone.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



1690 CE

609 m / 1998 ft


Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone

Rock Types

Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The basaltic Tseax River cinder cones (Aiyansh volcano) at the southern end of the Stikine volcanic belt have been the site of some of the youngest volcanic eruptions in Canada. Nested cinder cones lying along a tributary of the Nass River were the source of a lava flow that traveled into the Tseax River, damming it and forming Lava Lake. The flow subsequently traveled 11 km north to the Nass River, where it filled the flat valley floor for an additional 10 km. Native legends of the Nisga'a People tell of a prolonged period of disruption by the volcano, including the destruction of their village on the Nass River and the death of some people from "poison smoke." The vent was active at least twice (625 and 220 radiocarbon years ago) and other remnants of lava flows exist in the area, which was designated the Nisga'a Memorial Lava Beds Provincial Park in 1993 (Hickson and Edwards, 2001).


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Hickson C J, Edwards B R, 2001. Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards in Canada. In; Brooks G R (ed) {A Synthesis of Geological Hazards in Canada}, Geol Surv Can Bull, 548: 1-248.

Hickson C J, Soos A, Wright R, 1994. Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geol Surv Canada Open-File Rpt.

Higgins M D, 2009. The Cascadia megathrust earthquake of 1700 may have rejuvenated an isolated basalt volcano in western Canada: age and petrographic evidence. J Volc Geotherm Res, 179: 149-156.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Sutherland-Brown A, 1969. Aiyansh lava flow, British Columbia. Can J Earth Sci, 6: 1460-1468.

Wuorinen V, 1978. Age of Aiyansh volcano, British Columbia. Can J Earth Sci, 15: 1037-1038.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1690 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
1330 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Aiyansh Volcano

Photo Gallery

The Tseax River cinder cones (Aiyansh volcano) at the southern end of the Stikine volcanic belt have been the site of some of the youngest volcanic eruptions in Canada. This photo shows a tumulus in the middle of a broad lava plain in the Nass River valley produced by the Tseax River flow, which traveled 22.5 km. The flows are the prime attraction of the Nisga'a Memorial Lava Beds Provincial Park. The volcanic field erupted at least twice (625 and 220 radiocarbon years ago), and activity was noted in tribal legends.

Photo by Ben Edwards (Dickinson College, Pennsylvania).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Tseax River Cone in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Tseax River Cone Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.