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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 50.63°N
  • 123.5°W

  • 2680 m
    8790 ft

  • 320180
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Meager.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Meager.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Meager.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



410 BCE

2680 m / 8790 ft


Volcano Types


Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Mount Meager volcanic complex of Pliocene-to-Holocene age forms a dissected andesitic-to-rhyodacitic stratovolcano with multiple eroded summit lava domes and volcanic necks. Mount Meager lies in the Garibaldi volcanic belt and is the northernmost volcano of the Cascade volcanic arc that extends down to northern California. The summit of the complex consists of overlapping piles of andesitic lava flows and younger dacitic lava domes and flows. Quaternary basalts underlying the uppermost 22 km of the Elaho valley originated at the 1375 m level in the South Fork Meager River. The most recent activity from the Meager volcanic complex about 2350 years ago produced Canada's largest known Holocene explosive eruption and an associated welded block-and-ash flow and a lava flow from a vent on the NE flank of Plinth Peak. Two clusters of hot springs occur within the complex, which has been investigated for potential geothermal power.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Clague J J, Evans S G, Rampton V N, Woodsworth G J, 1995. Improved age estimates for the White River and Bridge River tephras, western Canada. Can J Earth Sci, 32: 1172-1179.

Green N L, Armstrong R L, Harakal J E, Souther J G, Read P B, 1988. Eruptive history and K-Ar geochronology of the late Cenozoic Garibaldi volcanic belt, southwestern British Columbia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 100: 563-579.

Hickson C J, Russell J K, Stasiuk M V, 1999. Volcanology of the 2350 B.P. eruption of Mount Meager volcanic complex, British Columbia, Canada: implications for hazards form eruptions in topographically complex terrain. Bull Volc, 60: 489-507.

Hickson C J, Soos A, Wright R, 1994. Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geol Surv Canada Open-File Rpt.

Hildreth W E, 2007. Quaternary magmatism in the Cascades--geologic perpectives. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1744: 1-125.

Holland S S, 1976. Landforms of British Columbia, a physiographic outline. Brit Columbia Dept Mines Petrol Resour Bull, 48: 1-138 (2nd printing).

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Lewis T J, Souther J G, 1978. Meager Mountain, B.C.- A possible geothermal energy resource. Energy Mines Resour Can, Geotherm Ser, 9: 1-17.

Michol K A, Russel J K, Andrews G D M, 2008. Welded block and ash flow deposits from Mount Meager, British Columbia, Canada. J Volc Geotherm Res, 169: 121-144.

Nasmith H, Mathews W H, Rouse G E, 1967. Bridge River ash and some other Recent ash beds in British Columbia. Can J Earth Sci, 4: 163-170.

Read P B, 1977. Meager Creek volcanic complex, southwestern British Columbia. Geol Surv Can Pap, 77-1A: 277-285.

Read P B, 1978. Meager Creek geothermal area. Geol Surv Can, Open-File 603, 1:20,000 geol map and text.

Read P B, 1990. Mount Meager complex, Garibaldi belt, southwestern British Columbia. Geosci Can, 17: 167-170.

Souther J G, 1977a. Volcanism and tectonic environments in the Canadian Cordillera, a second look. Geol Assoc Can Spec Pap, 16: 3-24.

Souther J G, 1977b. Volcano fly-by. Geol Assoc Can 1977 Ann Mtg, Vancouver, Fieldtrip Guidebook 16, 15 p.

Stasiuk M V, Russell J K, Hickson C J, 1994. Influence of magma chemistry on eruption behavior from the distribution and nature of the 2400 B.P. eruption products of Mount Meager, British Columbia. Geol Surv Can Open-File, 2843: 1-38 and 1:50,000 geol map.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0410 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) NE flank of Plinth Peak

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Meager Creek Volcanic Field


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Bridge River Vent Vent 1524 m 50° 40' 0" N 123° 30' 0" W
Capricorn, Mount Cone 2570 m 50° 37' 0" N 123° 31' 0" W
Devastation Vent 1980 m 50° 35' 0" N 123° 31' 0" W
Devastator, the Cone 2315 m 50° 29' 0" N 123° 32' 0" W
Elaho Valley Vent 1375 m
Job, Mount Cone 2493 m 50° 37' 0" N 123° 33' 0" W
Plinth Mountain Cone 2680 m 50° 40' 0" N 123° 31' 0" W


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Meager Creek Hot Spring Hot Spring 550 m 50° 34' 0" N 123° 28' 0" W
Pebble Creek Hot Spring Hot Spring 550 m 50° 40' 0" N 123° 27' 0" W

Photo Gallery

The Mount Meager volcanic complex is the northernmost major volcanic center in the Canadian extension of the Cascade Range. This Tertiary to Holocene complex has erupted rocks of mafic to felsic composition from at least 8 vents. The most recent eruption produced a pyroclastic flow and lava flow from a NE flank vent about 2350 years ago. This view from the Lillooet River valley to the west shows, from left to right, the glacially dissected volcanic necks of Mount Capricorn, Meager Mountain, and Plinth Mountain.

Photo by Willie Scott, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The inconspicuous ice-and-debris covered vent of the Bridge River eruption, the last eruption of the Meager volcanic complex, is located near the center of the photo immediately above the "inverted-V-shaped" forested valley fill. The Bridge River eruption, the largest-known Holocene explosive eruption in Canada, produced ashfall to the east across British Columbia into Alberta.

Photo by Willie Scott, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The tree trunk next to the geologist was buried by ash-fall deposits from the Bridge River eruption of the Meager volcanic complex about 2350 years ago, and then overrun by a pyroclastic flow. Its deposit has an unwelded base and a darker, more massive welded layer seen at the top of this photo.

Photo by Willie Scott, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The pyroclastic-flow deposit forming the foreground canyon wall on the Lillooet River was erupted from the Bridge River vent on the NE flank of the Meager volcanic complex. The inconspicuous vent at the upper right below the skyline notch was the source of an explosive eruption about 2350 years ago that spread ash to the east across British Columbia and Alberta and produced the pyroclastic flow seen here and a 3-km-long rhyodacite lava flow.

Photo by Willie Scott, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Mount Capricorn, Meager Mountain, and Plinth Mountain, from left to right, seen above the Lillooet River valley to the SE, are three of the 8 volcanic centers forming the Tertiary to Holocene Meager volcanic complex. Deep glacial erosion has exposed the interior of a group of dissected rhyodacite volcanic necks forming the highest peaks.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Meager in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Meager Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.