Garibaldi Lake

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 49.92°N
  • 123.03°W

  • 2316 m
    7596 ft

  • 320190
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Garibaldi Lake.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Garibaldi Lake.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Garibaldi Lake.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Evidence Credible

2316 m / 7596 ft


Volcano Types

Volcanic field

Rock Types

Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

A group of nine small andesitic stratovolcanoes and basaltic-andesite vents in the scenic Garibaldi Lake area immediately north of Mount Garibaldi was formed during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The oldest stratovolcano, The Black Tusk, formed between about 1.3 and 1.1 million years ago (Ma). Following glacial dissection, renewed volcanism (0.21-0.17 Ma) produced the lava dome and flow forming its summit. Other Pleistocene vents are located along and to the west of the Cheakamus River. The Cinder Cone, to the east of The Black Tusk, produced a 9-km-long lava flow during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene (0.04 +/- 0.04 Ma). Mount Price, west of Garibaldi Lake, was formed in three stages dating back to 1.1 million years, the latest of which produced two large lava flows from Clinker Peak during the early Holocene that ponded against the retreating continental ice sheet and formed the barrier containing Garibaldi Lake. The Table, a steep-sided subglacial tuya south of Garibaldi Lake, was also formed during the early Holocene.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Green N L, 1981. Geology and petrology of Quaternary volcanic rocks, Garibaldi Lake area, southwestern British Columbia summary. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 92: 697-702.

Green N L, 1990. Late Cenozoic volcanism in the Mount Garibaldi and Garibaldi Lake volcanic fields, Garibaldi volcanic belt, southwestern British Columbia. Geosci Can, 17: 171-174.

Green N L, Armstrong R L, Harakal J E, Souther J G, Read P B, 1988. Eruptive history and K-Ar geochronology of the late Cenozoic Garibaldi volcanic belt, southwestern British Columbia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 100: 563-579.

Hickson C J, Edwards B R, 2001. Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards in Canada. In; Brooks G R (ed) {A Synthesis of Geological Hazards in Canada}, Geol Surv Can Bull, 548: 1-248.

Hickson C J, Soos A, Wright R, 1994. Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Geol Surv Canada Open-File Rpt.

Mathews W H, 1958. Geology of the Mt. Garibaldi map-area, S.W. British Columbia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 69: 186.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Garibaldi Lake. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Garibaldi Lake page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Black Tusk, the Stratovolcano 2316 m 49° 58' 0" N 123° 3' 0" W
Brew, Mount Vent 1740 m 50° 2' 0" N 123° 11' 0" W
Cinder Cone, the Cone 1845 m 49° 58' 0" N 123° 0' 0" W
Clinker Peak Stratovolcano 1980 m 49° 55' 0" N 123° 2' 0" W
Price Bay Cone 49° 55' 0" N 123° 2' 0" W
Price, Mount
    Red Mountain
Stratovolcano 2042 m 49° 55' 0" N 123° 2' 0" W
Sphinx Moraine Vent 1525 m 49° 56' 0" N 122° 51' 0" W
Table, the Tuya 1645 m 49° 54' 0" N 123° 1' 0" W

Photo Gallery

The Garibaldi Lake volcanic field consists of nine small stratovolcanoes and volcanic vents of Pleistocene to Holocene age around scenic Garibaldi Lake, seen here with Mount Garibaldi in the background. Mount Price, in the center of the photo, is a small andesitic stratovolcano. Clinker Peak, on its west flank, produced two Holocene lava flows that dammed Rubble Creek at the right-hand margin of this photo, forming Garibaldi Lake.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1983 (Smithsonian Institution).
The low ridge in the center of the photo consists of early Holocene lava flows that originated from Clinker Peak on Mount Price to the south (left). The lava flows ponded against the retreating continental glacier that filled the Cheakamus River valley to a depth of 1000 m, and formed a barrier that created Garibaldi Lake.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1983 (Smithsonian Institution).
The unvegetated cliff along Rubble Creek is the margin of the early Holocene lava flows that created Garibaldi Lake. The steep-sided lava-flow margin formed when the flow ponded against the retreating continental glacier filling the Cheakamus River valley. The oversteepened flow margin has been the source of several landslides down Rubble Creek, leaving a scarp known as The Barrier.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1983 (Smithsonian Institution).
The spectacular Black Tusk, towering above a flower-covered mountain meadow, is a glacially eroded lava dome from the earliest stage of activity of the Garibaldi Lake volcanic field about 1 million years ago. The light-colored ridge to the right is a glacial moraine.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1983 (Smithsonian Institution).
The irregular mound in the center of the photo is Cinder Cone, a late-Pleistocene cone of the Garibaldi Lake volcanic field. The pyroclastic cone was formed during two periods of activity, the lastest of which produced a lava flow down the glaciated valley to the north.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1983 (Smithsonian Institution).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Garibaldi Lake in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Garibaldi Lake Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.