Garibaldi

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 49.85°N
  • 123°W

  • 2678 m
    8784 ft

  • 320200
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

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Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
8060 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SE flank (Opal Cone)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Photo Gallery


Mount Garibaldi, rising above scenic Garibaldi Lake to the north, is a largely Pleistocene stratovolcano capped by a lava dome complex. The volcano was partially constructed over the Cordilleran ice sheet and displays many ice-contact features. Its final eruptions during the early Holocene included the emission of lava flows that mantled the west-side landside headwall and a massive lava flow from Opal Cone, a SE flank vent, that traveled 20 km to the south and west.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1983 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Mount Garibaldi is a Pleistocene volcano that was partially constructed over the Cordilleran ice sheet. Its steep-sided western face, seen from near Alice Lake, exposes the interior structure of the volcano and resulted from repeated landsliding of an oversteepened slope left when the continental ice sheet retreated. The sharp summit peak to the right is the Altwell Peak plug dome; the rounded peak to the left is Dalton Dome, the source of some of Garibaldi's most recent eruptions.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1976 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Mount Garibaldi rises to 2678 m above Howe Sound, 80 km north of Vancouver. The steep-sided peak on the right is the Squamish Chief, a glacially carved peak of the Coast Range batholith. Garibaldi was constructed during the Pleistocene, partially overriding the Cordilleran ice sheet. Retreat of the ice sheet left the western side of the volcano unsupported, causing many landslides into the Cheakamus River valley.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1976 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The Table, the dark, flat-topped ridge in the foreground in front of Mount Garibaldi, is the southernmost vent of the Garibaldi Lake volcanic field. This unusual feature is a "tuya," formed when lava flows filled a pit melted through the continental ice sheet. A series of stacked horizontal lava flows filling the pit formed The Table; late-stage flows spilled down a gap between the earlier flows and the ice-pit wall, coating the horizontal flows like icing on a cake.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1983 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Mount Garibaldi in the left background rises above the glacially dissected granitic rocks of the Coast Range Batholith that extend south to the Mount Seymour area in the foreground, immediately north of the city of Vancouver. Garibaldi's latest eruptive activity took place during the early Holocene.

Photo by Lee Siebert (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


The following 2 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 116136-1 Alkali basalt
NMNH 116136-2 Hypersthene andesite

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