Haleakala

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 20.708°N
  • 156.25°W

  • 3055 m
    10020 ft

  • 332060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Haleakala.

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The massive Haleakala shield volcano forms the eastern portion of the dumbbell-shaped island of Maui. The summit of 3055-m Haleakala contains a dramatic, 3.5 x 9.5 km summit crater that is widely breached on the north and SE sides. The "crater" is not of volcanic origin, but formed as a result of the coalescence of headward erosion of the Koolau and Kaupo valleys. Subsequently the crater has been partially filled by a chain of young cinder cones and lava flows erupted along a major rift zone that extends across the basaltic shield volcano from the SW to the east flanks. Another less prominent rift zone trends north from the summit. The most recent eruption was thought to have occurred between the exploring voyages of La Perouse in 1786 and Vancouver in 1793, but uncertainty surrounds the date of this event, which could have occurred in about 1750 CE (anthropological evidence) or several centuries earlier (radiocarbon dates).

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1750 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Anthropology SW rift zone (180-360 m), Kalua o Lapa flow
1460 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Kawaipapa lava flow
1420 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone
1360 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1600 m), Makua flow
1350 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1500 m), Keonehunehune flow
1200 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1200 m)
1080 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North crater wall (Hanakauhi flow)
1020 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Mauka flow
1010 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Halali'i)
0990 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Puu Hina'i, Ka'eleku flows
0980 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Puu o ka O'o)
0910 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater, Kalua Awa flow
0790 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Puu Nole)
0080 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater
0290 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~2400 m)
0390 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North crater wall
0580 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater
1140 BCE ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Auwahi flow
1240 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Upper SW rift zone (~2800 m)
1310 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Upper SW rift zone (~2600 m)
1800 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater
1850 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1600 m)
1900 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Wai'ele'ele flow
1940 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone
2120 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Puu Maile)
2210 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
2260 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone (East Camp cone)
2470 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~2000 m)
2580 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3070 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
4760 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
5860 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
6030 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Lo'alo'a flow
6220 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Kanahau flow
6700 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Waiohuli flow
6760 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone (W of Kanahau)
7210 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Upper SW rift zone
7450 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
7570 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Kuhiwa flow
7950 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1800 m)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

East Maui Volcano | Mauna Haleakala

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Halalii Cone 2320 m 20° 43' 23" N 156° 12' 7" W
Honokahua Cone 2200 m 20° 43' 34" N 156° 10' 37" W
Illi, Puu O Cone 20° 45' 32" N 156° 14' 31" W
Ka Moa O Pele Cone 2350 m 20° 43' 0" N 156° 12' 25" W
Kaimaloo Cone 1050 m 20° 39' 0" N 156° 22' 0" W
Kaluaiki Cone 2220 m 20° 43' 41" N 156° 9' 0" W
Kaluu O Ka Oo Cone 2538 m 20° 43' 0" N 156° 14' 10" W
Kamaoli Cone 2490 m 20° 43' 0" N 156° 14' 0" W
Keonehunehune Cone 1336 m 20° 39' 0" N 156° 22' 0" W
Keonenelu Cone 1213 m 20° 39' 0" N 156° 22' 0" W
Kolekole Cone 3052 m 20° 43' 0" N 156° 15' 32" W
Kulanapahu Cone 1000 m 20° 39' 0" N 156° 23' 0" W
Kumu, Puu Cone 2320 m 20° 43' 59" N 156° 11' 28" W
Mahoe, Puu Cone 801 m 20° 38' 0" N 156° 23' 0" W
Maile, Puu Cone 2290 m 20° 42' 54" N 156° 10' 52" W
Makua, Puu Cone 1608 m 20° 40' 0" N 156° 21' 0" W
Mamane, Puu Cone 2320 m 20° 43' 34" N 156° 11' 31" W
Maui, Puu O Cone 2479 m 20° 43' 19" N 156° 13' 19" W
Mauna Hina Cone 2450 m 20° 43' 55" N 156° 10' 59" W
Molokini Islet Tuff cone 20° 38' 0" N 156° 30' 0" W
Naio, Puu Cone 350 m 20° 37' 0" N 156° 24' 0" W
Namana O Ke Akua Cone 2380 m 20° 43' 23" N 156° 11' 6" W
Naue, Puu Cone 2346 m 20° 43' 16" N 156° 11' 49" W
Nianiau, Puu Cone 2088 m 20° 46' 34" N 156° 14' 53" W
Nole, Puu Cone 2280 m 20° 43' 16" N 156° 11' 0" W
Oile, Puu Cone 2100 m 20° 43' 0" N 156° 9' 40" W
Olai, Puu Cone 110 m 20° 38' 0" N 156° 27' 0" W
Pele, Puu O Cone 2460 m 20° 42' 47" N 156° 13' 19" W
Pimoe Cone 538 m 20° 37' 0" N 156° 22' 0" W
Polipoli Cone 1973 m 20° 40' 0" N 156° 20' 0" W
Red Hill Cone 3055 m 20° 42' 47" N 156° 15' 22" W

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hana Ridge Fissure vent
The broad Haleakala shield volcano towers over the eastern part of the island of Maui. Its summit profile, seen here from the beach at Kihei on the west flank, is irregular because of the many cinder cones that have erupted along the SW rift zone, which extends from the coast to the summit. The rocky lava flow in the foreground originated from Haleakala.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
The windward side of Haleakala is lushly vegetated. The east rift zone of Haleakala extends to the eastern tip of Maui, north of this beach at Hamoa. Eruptions along the east rift zone have taken place as recently as about 500 years ago. The Waihoi Valley, one of several large valleys that dissect the flanks of Haleakala, forms the notch on the left skyline.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
Halalii (center foreground) and Puu o Maui (left center) are two of a series of young cinder cones erupted along a fissure cutting across the floor of Haleakala crater. Unvegetated lava flows cover much of the crater floor. Despite its barren appearance, the crater is of botanical interest as one of the few locations where the rare native-Hawaiian silversword cactus is found. This view looks NW from Puu Naue cinder cone.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
Ka Moa o Pele (left) and Puu o Maui (right) are two of a group of young, unvegetated cinder cones along the southwest rift zone within Haleakala crater. This view looks west, with the 3055-m-high summit of Haleakala on the center skyline. The age of individual cinder cones in Haleakala's crater is not known precisely. However lava flows within the crater are not covered by a 2500-year-old ash layer found on the crater rim, indicating that the lava flows are younger than this ash.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
Puu o Maui is the largest of a chain of cinder cones erupted along a rift zone that passes across Haleakala crater, whose west rim appears at the upper left. Lava flows on the crater floor, such as the one in the foreground, are younger than a 2500-year-old ash layer on the crater rim.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
The latest eruption of Haleakala volcano took place from vents low on the SW rift zone. Lava flows from two vents, one at about this altitude to the right of this photo, and the other from a vent below the breached cinder cone at the left center, reached the sea, forming the rugged lava peninsula seen here. The eruption occurred sometime between the exploring visits of La Perouse in 1786 and Vancouver in 1793. The island of Kahoolawe, in the distance to the SW, is a shield volcano that produced late-stage cinder cones of late Pleistocene or Holocene age.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
Puu Olai, a 113-m-high tuff cone on the west flank of Haleakala volcano, formed during the late-stage Hana Series eruptions, which produced a large number of cinder cones and lava flows along the SW and east rift zones. Another tuff cone, Molokini, which is a popular snorkeling and diving location, forms a crescent-shaped island 5 km west of Puu Olai.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
The summit of Haleakala shield volcano, on the island of Maui, is cut by a massive, 9.5 x 3.5 km wide crater. The "crater" is not of volcanic origin, but was formed by coalescing headward erosion of two large valleys. This view to the NE from near the summit of Haleakala shows the Koolau Gap in the distance and a line of cinder cones on the crater floor erupted along a major rift zone that extends across the summit from the SW to eastern coasts.

Copyrighted photo by Richard Stoiber, 1976 (Dartmouth College).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Bergmanis E C, Sinton J M, Trusdell F A, 2000. Rejuvenated volcanism along the southwest rift zone, East Maui, Hawai'i. Bull Volc, 62: 239-255.

Crandell D R, 1983. Potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions on the island of Maui, Hawaii. U S Geol Surv Map, I-1442.

Eakins B W, Robinson J E, 2006. Submarine geology of Hana Ridge and Haleakala volcano's northeast flank, Maui. J Volc Geotherm Res, 151: 229-250.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Macdonald G A, 1955. Hawaiian Islands. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 3: 1-37.

Macdonald G A, 1978. Geologic map of the crater section of Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. U S Geol Surv Map, I-1088, 8 p text.

Reber G, 1959. Age of lava flows on Haleakala, Hawaii. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 70: 1245-1246.

Robinson J E, Eakins B W, 2006. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge. J Volc Geotherm Res, 151: 309-317.

Sherrod D R, McGeehin J P, 1999. New radiocarbon ages from Haleakala crater, island of Maui, Hawai'i. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 99-143: 1-14.

U S Geological Survey, 2002. Tables of new volcano-related radiocarbon ages for East Maui (Haleakala volcano) as of 2002. http://hvo.usgs.gov/volcanoes/halakala.c14ages_2002.pdf.

U S Geological Survey, 1999. Youngest lava flows on East Maui probably older than A.D. 1790. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1999/99_09_09.html.

Volcano Types

Shield
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
26,074
26,074
65,398
157,582

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Haleakala Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.