Haleakala

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 20.708°N
  • 156.25°W

  • 3055 m
    10020 ft

  • 332060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Haleakala.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Haleakala.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Haleakala.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1750 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Anthropology SW rift zone (180-360 m), Kalua o Lapa flow
1460 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Kawaipapa lava flow
1420 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone
1360 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1600 m), Makua flow
1350 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1500 m), Keonehunehune flow
1200 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1200 m)
1080 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North crater wall (Hanakauhi flow)
1020 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Mauka flow
1010 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Halali'i)
0990 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Puu Hina'i, Ka'eleku flows
0980 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Puu o ka O'o)
0910 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater, Kalua Awa flow
0790 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Puu Nole)
0080 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater
0290 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~2400 m)
0390 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) North crater wall
0580 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater
1140 BCE ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Auwahi flow
1240 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Upper SW rift zone (~2800 m)
1310 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Upper SW rift zone (~2600 m)
1800 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater
1850 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1600 m)
1900 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Wai'ele'ele flow
1940 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone
2120 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Haleakala crater (Puu Maile)
2210 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
2260 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone (East Camp cone)
2470 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~2000 m)
2580 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3070 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
4760 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
5860 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
6030 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Lo'alo'a flow
6220 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Kanahau flow
6700 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone, Waiohuli flow
6760 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) SW rift zone (W of Kanahau)
7210 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Upper SW rift zone
7450 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone
7570 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) East rift zone, Kuhiwa flow
7950 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) SW rift zone (~1800 m)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Photo Gallery


The broad Haleakala shield volcano towers over the eastern part of the island of Maui. Its summit profile, seen here from the beach at Kihei on the west flank, is irregular because of the many cinder cones that have erupted along the SW rift zone, which extends from the coast to the summit. The rocky lava flow in the foreground originated from Haleakala.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The windward side of Haleakala is lushly vegetated. The east rift zone of Haleakala extends to the eastern tip of Maui, north of this beach at Hamoa. Eruptions along the east rift zone have taken place as recently as about 500 years ago. The Waihoi Valley, one of several large valleys that dissect the flanks of Haleakala, forms the notch on the left skyline.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Halalii (center foreground) and Puu o Maui (left center) are two of a series of young cinder cones erupted along a fissure cutting across the floor of Haleakala crater. Unvegetated lava flows cover much of the crater floor. Despite its barren appearance, the crater is of botanical interest as one of the few locations where the rare native-Hawaiian silversword cactus is found. This view looks NW from Puu Naue cinder cone.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Ka Moa o Pele (left) and Puu o Maui (right) are two of a group of young, unvegetated cinder cones along the southwest rift zone within Haleakala crater. This view looks west, with the 3055-m-high summit of Haleakala on the center skyline. The age of individual cinder cones in Haleakala's crater is not known precisely. However lava flows within the crater are not covered by a 2500-year-old ash layer found on the crater rim, indicating that the lava flows are younger than this ash.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Puu o Maui is the largest of a chain of cinder cones erupted along a rift zone that passes across Haleakala crater, whose west rim appears at the upper left. Lava flows on the crater floor, such as the one in the foreground, are younger than a 2500-year-old ash layer on the crater rim.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The latest eruption of Haleakala volcano took place from vents low on the SW rift zone. Lava flows from two vents, one at about this altitude to the right of this photo, and the other from a vent below the breached cinder cone at the left center, reached the sea, forming the rugged lava peninsula seen here. The eruption occurred sometime between the exploring visits of La Perouse in 1786 and Vancouver in 1793. The island of Kahoolawe, in the distance to the SW, is a shield volcano that produced late-stage cinder cones of late Pleistocene or Holocene age.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Puu Olai, a 113-m-high tuff cone on the west flank of Haleakala volcano, formed during the late-stage Hana Series eruptions, which produced a large number of cinder cones and lava flows along the SW and east rift zones. Another tuff cone, Molokini, which is a popular snorkeling and diving location, forms a crescent-shaped island 5 km west of Puu Olai.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The summit of Haleakala shield volcano, on the island of Maui, is cut by a massive, 9.5 x 3.5 km wide crater. The "crater" is not of volcanic origin, but was formed by coalescing headward erosion of two large valleys. This view to the NE from near the summit of Haleakala shows the Koolau Gap in the distance and a line of cinder cones on the crater floor erupted along a major rift zone that extends across the summit from the SW to eastern coasts.

Copyrighted photo by Richard Stoiber, 1976 (Dartmouth College).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


The following 59 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 109409-8 Ankaramite
NMNH 110777 Ankaramite
NMNH 111123-1859 Trachytic andesite
NMNH 111123-1860 Trachytic andesite
NMNH 111123-1866 Picrite basalt
NMNH 111123-1869 Trachyte
NMNH 114756-1 Unidentified
NMNH 116254-10 Andesine basalt
NMNH 116254-11 Labradorite-nepheline basalt
NMNH 116254-14 "Limburgitic basalt with augite, saponite (var. ferroan saponite), and others"
NMNH 116254-15 Augite
NMNH 116254-7 Nepheline-andesine basalt
NMNH 116254-8 Andesine andesite
NMNH 116254-9 Labradorite-nepheline basalt
NMNH 117254-122 Picrite basalt
NMNH 117254-158 Oligoclase andesite
NMNH 117997-1 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117997-10 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117997-11 Olivine-basalt
NMNH 117997-12 Plagioclase-olivine basalt
NMNH 117997-13 Plagioclase-olivine basalt
NMNH 117997-14 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117997-15 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117997-16 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117997-17 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117997-18 Basalt
NMNH 117997-19 Olivine-basalt
NMNH 117997-2 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117997-20 Picrite basalt
NMNH 117997-21 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117997-3 Basalt
NMNH 117997-4 Picrite basalt
NMNH 117997-5 Picrite basalt
NMNH 117997-6 Olivine-basalt
NMNH 117997-7 Basalt
NMNH 117997-8 Basalt
NMNH 117997-9 Picrite basalt
NMNH 117998-1 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117998-2 Plagioclase basalt
NMNH 117999-1 Olivine-augite basalt
NMNH 117999-2 Olivine-basalt
NMNH 117999-3 Picrite basalt
NMNH 70566 Lava
NMNH 70569 Basalt
NMNH 70575 Lava
NMNH 88127-79 Essexitic andesite
NMNH 88127-80 Essexitic andesite
NMNH 88127-81 Picrite basalt
NMNH 88127-82 Essexitic andesite
NMNH 88127-83 Essexitic andesite
NMNH 92588-110 Volcanic
NMNH 92588-122 Volcanic
NMNH 92588-123 Volcanic
NMNH 92588-124 Volcanic
NMNH 92588-125 Volcanic
NMNH 92588-126 Volcanic
NMNH 92588-127 Volcanic
NMNH 92588-129 Volcanic
NMNH 92588-130 Volcanic

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