Chiles-Cerro Negro

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.817°N
  • 77.938°W

  • 4698 m
    15409 ft

  • 351110
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 5 November-11 November 2014 Cite this Report


On 4 November Servicio Geológico Colombiano's Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (SGC-OVSP) reported that seismic activity at Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes remained elevated. Since 29 September 2014 about 132,000 earthquakes had been detected, with 3,200 of those events occurring on 4 November. During the previous week hypocenters were located 0.3-6.3 km S and SW of Chiles, at depths of 3-9 km below the summit. Local magnitudes were between 0.7 and 4.6. The Alert Level remained at Orange (level 3 of 4).

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: August 1990 (BGVN 15:08) Cite this Report


H2S-rich hot springs at Pleistocene volcano

"In April 1988 and again on 3 April 1990 we visited two hydrothermal springs [on Chiles] and collected samples. The first, La Calera, is a developed hot spring with baths just W of the town of Chiles and 8 km E of the crater of Chiles volcano, at 3,180 m elev. The maximum temperature was 40°C and pH was 6.2. No significant sulfur deposition was observed at the natural source of hot water, ~ 100 m uphill from the commercial baths. The second site, La Hedionda, was unsuccessfully developed as a tourist bath area, reputedly failing because of deadly levels of H2S. It is 3.5 km E of the crater, at 3,470 m elevation. The uppermost hot spring, with a temperature of 54°C and pH of 5.1, was sampled. These acid sulfate springs were actively depositing native sulfur and had an almost overwhelming odor of H2S. Fumarole samples were collected at both springs. No observations were made, on either visit, of the summit area, which was always covered by clouds. The observations at Chiles are consistent with a stable system, dominated by hydrothermal processes."

Information Contacts: S. Williams, Louisiana State Univ; J. Stix and E. Fontaine, Univ de Montréal.

Weekly Reports - Index


2014: October | November


5 November-11 November 2014 Cite this Report


On 4 November Servicio Geológico Colombiano's Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (SGC-OVSP) reported that seismic activity at Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes remained elevated. Since 29 September 2014 about 132,000 earthquakes had been detected, with 3,200 of those events occurring on 4 November. During the previous week hypocenters were located 0.3-6.3 km S and SW of Chiles, at depths of 3-9 km below the summit. Local magnitudes were between 0.7 and 4.6. The Alert Level remained at Orange (level 3 of 4).

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)


22 October-28 October 2014 Cite this Report


Based on reports from Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (SGC-OVSP), and the Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IGEPN), on 26 October Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) stated that seismic activity at Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes continued at a high rate. Since 29 September 2014 about 81,000 earthquakes had been detected with 6,300 of those events occurring on 25 October. The epicenter was 2-3.5 km S of Chiles. Interferometry (INSAR) and a high resolution GPS network both showed localized deformation S of Chiles. The Alert Level remained at Orange (level 3 of 4).

A news article from 23 October noted that 3,500 families had been evacuated from the Chiles, Panam, and Mayasquer communities.

Sources: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC); Colombia Reports


15 October-21 October 2014 Cite this Report


On 20 October Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that a M 5.8 earthquake, the largest to date, occurred in the vicinity of the Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes at a depth of less than 10 km. The event was felt to the N in Pasto (Colombia) and to the S in Quito (Ecuador). On 21 October SGC raised the Alert Level for the volcanic complex to Orange (level 3 of 4) noting that a seismic swarm characterized by 4,300 earthquakes was detected in an 18-hour period. Hypocenters were located 1-4 km SW of Chiles volcano at depths of 3-5 km and local magnitudes between M 0.2 and 4.5. Inhabitants felt 11 of the events. On 22 October a report noted that the total number of earthquakes recorded on 21 October reached 7,717, which was the largest number of earthquakes recorded on one day since the installation of a local seismic network in November 2013. Several swarms have occurred in the area since February 2013.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)


Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

08/1990 (BGVN 15:08) H2S-rich hot springs at Pleistocene volcano




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


August 1990 (BGVN 15:08) Cite this Report


H2S-rich hot springs at Pleistocene volcano

"In April 1988 and again on 3 April 1990 we visited two hydrothermal springs [on Chiles] and collected samples. The first, La Calera, is a developed hot spring with baths just W of the town of Chiles and 8 km E of the crater of Chiles volcano, at 3,180 m elev. The maximum temperature was 40°C and pH was 6.2. No significant sulfur deposition was observed at the natural source of hot water, ~ 100 m uphill from the commercial baths. The second site, La Hedionda, was unsuccessfully developed as a tourist bath area, reputedly failing because of deadly levels of H2S. It is 3.5 km E of the crater, at 3,470 m elevation. The uppermost hot spring, with a temperature of 54°C and pH of 5.1, was sampled. These acid sulfate springs were actively depositing native sulfur and had an almost overwhelming odor of H2S. Fumarole samples were collected at both springs. No observations were made, on either visit, of the summit area, which was always covered by clouds. The observations at Chiles are consistent with a stable system, dominated by hydrothermal processes."

Information Contacts: S. Williams, Louisiana State Univ; J. Stix and E. Fontaine, Univ de Montréal.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
351110

1936 CE

4698 m / 15409 ft

0.817°N
77.938°W

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera

Rock Types

Major
Dacite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
977
4,573
151,519
1,826,460

Geological Summary

The Chiles-Cerro Negro volcanic complex includes both the Pleistocene Chiles and the Cerro Negro de Mayasquer stratovolcanoes astride the Colombia-Ecuador border. Cerro Negro has a caldera open to the west, with andesitic and dacitic lava flows of possible Holocene age (Hall 1992, pers. comm.) and solfataras on the shore of a small crater lake. An eruption reported in 1936 may have been from Reventador (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). The higher, glacier-covered summit of Chiles, about 4 km ESE of Cerro Negro, last erupted about 160,000 years ago, but it has a caldera open to the north with hot springs and an active hydrothermal system on its eastern flank.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Beate B, 1992. (pers. comm.).

Beate B, Salgado R, 2005. Geothermal country update for Ecuador, 2000-2005. Proc World Geotherm Cong 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005, 5 p.

Cuellar-Rodriguez J V, Ramirez-Lopez C, 1987. Descripcion de los volcanes Colombianos. Rev CIAF, Bogota, p 189-222.

Hall M L, 1992. (pers. comm.).

Hantke G, Parodi I, 1966. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 19: 1-73.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

INECEL, 1987. Estudio de prefactibilidad del "Projecto Geotermico Binacional Tufino-Chiles-Cerro Negro". Inf Geovulcanologico Realirado Aquater/BRGM/OLADE, unpublished rpt.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1936 Jul 17 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Volcano Uncertain: possibly Reventador

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chiles Stratovolcano 4698 m 0° 49' 2" N 77° 56' 16" W
Negro de Mayasquer, Cerro
    Oreja, Cerro de la
Stratovolcano 4421 m 0° 49' 28" N 77° 57' 56" W

Photo Gallery


The summit of Cerro Negro de Mayasquer volcano is truncated by a caldera that is breached to the west. This view from the NW shows snow-capped Volcán Chiles at the upper left. Eruptive activity at these twin volcanoes has migrated to the west, with the most recent eruptions occurring from Cerro Negro de Mayasquer. A small crater lake is found at the bottom of the 900 x 1500-m-wide caldera. An eruption that was reported from the volcano in 1936 may actually have been from Reventador volcano to the SE.

Photo by Minard Hall, 1985 (Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito)
Cerro Negro de Mayasquer (Ieft) and snow-capped Volcán Chiles (right), seen here from the south, are twin volcanoes that straddle the Colombia-Ecuador border. Chiles volcano is of Pleistocene age, but has hot springs and an active hydrothermal system on its eastern flank. Cerro Negro de Mayasquer is a stratovolcano with a caldera open to the west. Andesitic and dacitic lava flows are of possible Holocene age. Solfataras are found on the shore of a small crater lake.

Photo by Minard Hall, 1985 (Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito)
Cerro Negro de Mayasquer is the youngest of a pair of twin volcanoes along the Ecuador-Colombia border. It is seen here from the Ecuadorian side on the south. The long ridge to the left of its summit is the rim of a horseshoe-shaped caldera that is breached to the NW.

Photo by Minard Hall, 1985 (Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito)

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Chiles-Cerro Negro Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.