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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.538°S
  • 77.626°W

  • 3990 m
    13087 ft

  • 352040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Sumaco.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Sumaco.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Sumaco.

Volcano Types


Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Phono-tephrite / Tephri-phonolite


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The forested Sumaco stratovolcano rises 2800 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin, east of Antisana volcano, and occupies an isolated position far to the east of the main Andes volcanic axis. Constructed over Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, 3990-m-high Sumaco forms a relatively symmetrical cone in an area of heavy rainfall and erosion. Sumaco has produced alkaline tephritic, basanitic, and phonolitic rocks distinct from those of the main Andean chain. The volcano has a broad summit crater, 300 x 400 m wide, containing a central cone. Reports of historical eruptions are somewhat ambiguous; an eruption is inferred in the 18th or early-19th century on the basis of changes in crater morphology.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1933 Feb ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
1895 ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1650 ± 50 years ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 3  

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Guacamayo | Cuyufa


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Guagua Sumaco Cone

Photo Gallery

Forested Sumaco volcano rises to 3990 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin and is seen here in an unusually cloud-free view NE of the road from Baeza to Tena. Sumaco is part of a north-south-trending volcanic chain far to the east of the main Andes volcanic axis and has erupted more alkaline rocks distinct from those of the main chain. Reports of historical eruptions are somewhat ambiguous, although the volcano maintains its symmetrical shape despite heavy rainfall and intense erosion.

Photo by Ursy Potter, 2005.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Barragan R, Geist D, Hall M, Larson P, Kurz M, 1998. Subduction controls on the compositions of lavas from the Ecuadorian Andes. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 154: 153-166.

Hall M L, 1992. . (pers. comm.).

Hall M L, 1977. El Volcanismo en El Ecuador. Quito: Biblioteca Ecuador, 120 p.

Hantke G, Parodi I, 1966. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 19: 1-73.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Lewis G E, Tschopp H J, Marks J G, 1956. Ecuador. In: Jenks W F (ed) {Handbook of South American Geol}, Geol Soc Amer Mem 65: 249-292.

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Sumaco Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.