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Quilotoa is a truncated, dacitic cone that is the westernmost of Ecuador's Andean volcanoes. It is located at the margin of the Western Cordillera, 35 km WNW of the city of Latacunga and contains a 3-km-wide caldera with steep-sided walls that rise 400 m above the surface of 240-m-deep caldera lake. More than a half dozen lava domes form an circular array along the caldera's perimeter. This small volcano has produced eight major explosive eruptions during the past 200,000 years. Its most recent major eruption about 800 radiocarbon years ago produced voluminous pyroclastic flows, lahars that reached the Pacific Ocean, and one of the largest airfall-tephra deposits of the northern Andes. Formation of the caldera was followed by extrusion of a small lava dome. Reports of historical eruptions from the caldera lake are somewhat ambiguous. Fumaroles are present on the lake floor and hot springs occur on the eastern flank.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|[ 1797 Feb 4 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|[ 1759 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||2|
|[ 1740 Dec ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||2|
|[ 1725 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||2|
|[ 1660 Nov 28 ]||[ Unknown ]||Discredited|
|1280 (?)||Unknown||Confirmed||6||Radiocarbon (corrected)|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Quirotoa | Quilatoa|
|Quilotoa is a truncated, forested dacitic cone containing a steep-walled, 3-km-wide caldera filled by a 250-m-deep lake. Lava domes form the caldera's perimeter and occupy its floor. Its most recent large eruption about 800 years ago produced voluminous pyroclastic flows, lahars that reached the Pacific Ocean, and one of the largest airfall-tephra deposits of the northern Andes. Reports of historical eruptions from the caldera lake are somewhat ambiguous. Fumaroles are present on the lake floor and hot springs occur on the eastern flank.
Photo by Minard Hall, 1973 (Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Di Muro A, Rosi M, Aguilera E, Barbieri R, Massa G, Mundula F, Pieri F, 2008. Transport and sedimentation dynamics of transitional explosive eruption columns: the example of the 800 BP Quilotoa plinian eruption (Ecuador). J Volc Geotherm Res, 174: 307-324.
Hall M L, 1977. El Volcanismo en El Ecuador. Quito: Biblioteca Ecuador, 120 p.
Hall M L, Mothes P A, 2008a. Quilotoa volcano--Ecuador: an overview of young dacitic volcanism in a lake-filled caldera. J Volc Geotherm Res, 176: 44-55.
Hantke G, Parodi I, 1966. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 19: 1-73.
Mothes P A, Hall M L, 2008. The plinian fallout associated with Quilotoa's 800 yr BP eruption, Ecuadorian Andes. J Volc Geotherm Res, 176: 56-69.
Rosi M, Di Muro A, Aguilera E, 2006. Eruptive dynamics during the 800 yr BP Quilotoa eruption. IAVCEI Commission on Explosive Volcanism Field Workshop, Cities on Volcanoes 4, Quito, Ecuador 23-27 Jan, 2006, 30 p.
Rosi M, Landi P, Polacci M, Di Muro A, Zandomeneghi D, 2004. Role of conduit shear on ascent of the crystal-rich magma feeding the 800-year-B.P. Plinian eruption of Quilotoa volcano (Ecuador). Bull Volc, 66: 307-321.
Sapper K, 1917. Katalog der Geschichtlichen Vulkanausbruche. Strasbourg: Karl J Trubner, 358 p.