Santiago

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.22°S
  • 90.77°W

  • 920 m
    3018 ft

  • 353090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Santiago.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Santiago.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Santiago.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1904 1906 Dec 15 ± 45 days Confirmed 0 Historical Observations SE flank
1897 Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations SE flank (Sullivan Bay?)
1759 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Anthropology West flank (James Bay)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Photo Gallery


A spectacular suite of volcanic features flanks Sullivan Bay, at the eastern end of Santiago Island. This view looks NE across the bay to Bartolomé Island. The sharp pinnacle at the left, a remnant of an eroded tuff cone, is one of the many scenic highlights of the Galápagos Islands. Bartolomé Island contains eroded tuff cones, a dissected solidified lava lake, and a youthful lava plateau. The flat coastline of Santiago Island in the foreground is formed from a vast field of youthful pahoehoe lava flows that wraps around the SE corner of the island.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
This prominent pinnacle is an eroded remnant of a tuff cone on Bartolomé Island, off the east coast of Santiago Island. A wide variety of volcanic features flanks Sullivan Bay, one of the most visited boat anchorages in the Galápagos Islands. These include tuff cones and cinder cones, a dissected solidifed lava lake, and vast fields of youthful pahoehoe lava flows.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The ropy texture of pahoehoe lava flows is produced when the thin solidified surface of the flow is pushed by the advancing, still-molten interior. This pleated pahoehoe lobe, on a lava flow at Santiago shield volcano in the Galápagos Islands, advanced slowly from the bottom right to the upper left. Pahoehoe lavas are the least viscous of common lava types, and thus form spectacular surface structures.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
An extensive field of spectacular pahoehoe lava flows is located near Sullivan Bay on Santiago Island. The fresh, sparsely vegetated flows cover an area of more than 50 sq km along the SE coast of the island. Eruptions occurred at SE Santiago in 1897 and 1904-06. A small lava shield 3.5 km inland from Cabo Trenton on the SE tip of the island was the principal vent of these flows.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The elongated shield volcano of Santiago Island is dotted with Holocene pyroclastic cones. Fresh lava flows that blanket the flanks of the volcano originated from these cones. The 920-m-high summit ridge, lined with NW-trending cinder and spatter cones, is seen here from James Bay on the west side of the island. The James Bay lava flows (center) reached the coast along a broad front. They were dated by fragments of marmalade pots left by buccaneers in 1684 that were subsequently embedded in the lava flows observed by Charles Darwin in 1835.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Cabo Cowan is a tuff cone at the NW tip of Santiago Island in the Galápagos Islands. Its summit crater is breached to the SW, where wave erosion has truncated the flanks of the cone, forming vertical sea cliffs that expose its interior. The 284-m-high tuff cone was constructed by submarine eruptions where the NW-trending rift zone along the crest of Santiago shield volcano encounters the sea.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
An unnamed 394-m-high cinder cone is a prominent landmark near James Bay at the western end of Santiago Island. The eruptions that constructed the cone were initially submarine, producing palagonitic tuffs. As the cone grew above sea level, subaerial explosions produced basaltic scoria that forms the upper part of the cone. A similar, but smaller cone lies immediately to the SE, out of view to the right.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


The following 4 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 118118-1 E
NMNH 118118-2 E
NMNH 118118-3 E
NMNH 118118-4 E

Affiliated Sites