Santa Cruz

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.62°S
  • 90.33°W

  • 864 m
    2834 ft

  • 353091
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Santa Cruz.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Santa Cruz.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Santa Cruz.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
353091

Unknown - Evidence Credible

864 m / 2834 ft

0.62°S
90.33°W

Volcano Types

Shield
Caldera
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
8,529
8,529
8,800
18,434

Geological Summary

The highlands of the broad Santa Cruz shield volcano rise to the north above the renowned Charles Darwin Research Station at Academy Bay. The oval-shaped, 32 x 40 km wide island is capped by youthful pit craters and cinder cones with well-preserved craters that largely bury a shallow summit caldera. Older uplifted submarine lava flows are found on the NE part of the island and at the fault-delimited offshore island of Baltra. The highland scoria cones are grouped along an E-W belt parallel to recent fault scarps that border Academy Bay. The youngest lava flows were erupted from vents along the summit fissure and on the northern flank. Their fresh morphology and sparsely vegetated surfaces suggest they may be only a few thousand years old, although their ages are not known precisely.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

McBirney A R, Williams H, 1969. Geology and petrology of the Galapagos Islands. Geol Soc Amer Mem, 118: 1-197.

Simkin T, 1984. Geology of Galapagos Islands. In: Perry R (ed) {Galapagos}, Oxford: Pergamon, p 15-41.

White W M, McBirney A R, Duncan R A, 1993. Petrology and geochemistry of the Galapagos Islands: Portrait of a pathological mantle plume. J Geophys Res, 98: 19,533-19,563.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Santa Cruz. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Santa Cruz page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Indefatigable

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chimney Mountain Cone
Crocker, Mount Cone
Red Hill Cone

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cavagnaro Crater
Deep Crater Crater
Table Mountain Crater Crater

Photo Gallery


The highlands of the broad Santa Cruz shield volcano, seen here from the NE, are capped by youthful cinder cones with well-preserved craters. The scoria cones are grouped in an E-W belt parallel to recent fault scarps that border Academy Bay and largely bury a shallow summit caldera. Older uplifted submarine lava flows are found on the NE part of the island and at the fault-delimited offshore island of Baltra. No historical eruptions are known from Santa Cruz, the 2nd-most populated island of the Galápagos archipelago.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
Lava flows line the steep walls of a pit crater on Santa Cruz island. Note the person standing on the rim at the right for scale. Pit craters are formed by collapse following the withdrawal of magma along a rift zone. They differ from other craters in that their rims lack a mantle of explosive debris. In some cases, vertical-walled pit craters can be hundreds of meters deep.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1978 (Smithsonian Institution).
The broad shield volcano forming Santa Cruz Island is seen from its northern coast. The oval-shaped, 32 x 40 km wide island is capped by cinder cones with well-preserved craters that largely bury a shallow summit caldera. The highland scoria cones are grouped along an E-W belt parallel to recent fault scarps that border Academy Bay, location of the Charles Darwin Research Station.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2006 (Smithsonian Institution).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Santa Cruz Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.