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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 16.608°S
  • 70.85°W

  • 4850 m
    15908 ft

  • 354030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Huaynaputina.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Huaynaputina.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Huaynaputina.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



1600 CE

4850 m / 15908 ft


Volcano Types

Lava dome(s)

Rock Types


Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

Huaynaputina (whose name means "new volcano") is a relatively inconspicuous volcano that was the source of the largest historical eruption of South America in 1600 CE. The volcano has no prominent topographic expression and lies within a 2.5-km-wide depression formed by edifice collapse and further excavated by glaciers within an older edifice of Tertiary-to-Pleistocene age. Three overlapping ash cones with craters up to 100 m deep were constructed during the 1600 CE eruption on the floor of the ancestral crater, whose outer flanks are heavily mantled by ash deposits from the 1600 eruption. This powerful fissure-fed eruption may have produced nearly 30 cu km of dacitic tephra, including pyroclastic flows and surges that traveled 13 km to the east and SE. Lahars reached the Pacific Ocean, 120 km away. The eruption caused substantial damage to the major cities of Arequipa and Moquengua, and regional economies took 150 years to fully recover.


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Adams N K, de Silva S L, Self S, Salas G, Schubring S, Permenter J L, Arbesman K, 2001. The physical volcanology of the 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina, southern Peru. Bull Volc, 62: 493-518.

Bullard F M, 1962. Volcanoes of Southern Peru. Bull Volc, 24: 443-453.

de Silva S L, Alzueta J, Salas G, 2000. The socioeconomic consequences of the A.D. 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina, southern Peru. In: McCoy F W, Heiken G (eds), {Volcanic Hazards and Disasters in Human Antiquity}, Geol Soc Am Spec Pap, 345: 15-24.

de Silva S L, Francis P W, 1990. Potentially active volcanoes of Peru - observations using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Space Shuttle imagery. Bull Volc, 52: 286-301.

de Silva S L, Zielinski G A, 1998. Global influence of the AD 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina, Peru. Nature, 393: 455-458.

Dietterich H, de Silva S, 2010. Sulfur yield of the 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina, Peru: Contributions from magmatic, fluid-phase, and hydrothermal sulfur . J Volc Geotherm Res, 197: 303-312.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1990. Huaynaputina volcano: the biggest historical dacitic eruption in the central Andes of South America, on February 19, 1600. IAVCEI 1990 Internatl Volc Cong, Mainz, Abs, (unpaginated).

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Hantke G, Parodi I, 1966. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 19: 1-73.

Lavallee Y, de Silva S L, Salas G, Byrnes J M, 2006. Explosive volcanism (VEI 6) without caldera formation: insight from Huaynaputina volcano, southern Peru. Bull Volc, 68: 333-348.

Lavallee Y, de Silva S L, Salas G, Byrnes J M, 2009. Structural control on volcanism at the Ubinas, Huaynaputina, and Ticscani Volcanic Group (UHTVG), southern Peru. J Volc Geotherm Res, 186: 253-264.

Thouret J-C, Davila J, Eissen J-P, 1999. Largest explosive eruption in historical time in the Andes at Huaynaputina volcano, A.D. 1600, southern Peru. Geology, 27: 435-438.

Thouret J-C, Juvigne E, Gourgaud A, Boivin P, Davila J, 2002. Reconstruction of the AD 1600 Huaynaputina eruption based on the correlation of geologic evidence with early Spanish chronicles. J Volc Geotherm Res, 115: 529-570.

Eruptive History

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1600 Feb 17 ± 1 days 1600 Mar 6 (?) Confirmed 6 Historical Observations Summit and south flank
7750 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Omate | Quinistaquillas | Chiquiomate | Chequepuquina | Guayta | Omato


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chilcas, Cerro las Dome 4450 m 16° 49' 0" S 70° 51' 0" W
Volcán, Cerro el Dome 16° 38' 50" S 70° 50' 36" W

Photo Gallery

Huaynaputina is a relatively inconspicuous volcano that was the source of one of the largest historical eruptions of the central Andes in 1600 AD. The volcano has no prominent topographic expression. This view is from the east into a 2.5-km-wide complex caldera that is breached widely to the east. Three ash cones, one of which can be seen in the shadow at the right-center, are located on the floor of the caldera. Light-colored ash deposits from the 1600 eruption can be seen mantling the caldera rim.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Huaynaputina in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Huaynaputina Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.