Robinson Crusoe

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 33.658°S
  • 78.85°W

  • 922 m
    3024 ft

  • 356020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Robinson Crusoe.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Robinson Crusoe.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Robinson Crusoe.

The main part of Robinson Crusoe (Mas a Tierra) Island, in the central part of the Juan Fernandez Island group, is composed of four overlapping shield volcanoes with calderas breached to the NE. The SW part of the basaltic island consists of smaller altered cones. Potassium-Argon dates for the island range from 5.8 to 3.8 million years ago (Steussy et al., 1984) and the island is more dissected than Alexander Selkirk (Mas a Fuera) Island to the west. An eruption at El Yunque was reported in 1743, but is considered uncertain (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). Several reports exist of a submarine eruption about 1.5 km north of the island in 1835 that produced an explosion and flames that lit up the island.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1835 Feb 20 1835 Feb 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations 1.6 km north of Punta Bacalao
[ 1743 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Mas a Tierra

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Yunque, El
    Anvil, The
Stratovolcano 922 m 33° 39' 29" S 78° 51' 0" W
An eruption plume (upper left) rises on February 20, 1835 from a submarine volcano in Bahía Cumberland off Punta Bacalao on Robinson Crusoe (Mas a Tierra) Island. The sketch was made by Sutcliffe (1939), the island's governor; during the eruption flames were reported that lit up the island. Robinson Crusoe, in the central part of the Juan Fernandez Island group, is composed of four overlapping shield volcanoes with calderas breached to the NE. The SW part of the basaltic island consists of smaller altered cones.

Sketch in Sutcliff, 1839 (courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán, University of Chile).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Baker P E, Keyvan-Scocouhi F A, 1982. Petrology and geochemistry of the Juan Fernandez Islands, south east Pacific. In: Schmincke H-U, Baker P E, Forjaz V H (eds) {Proc Symp Activity Oceanic Volcanoes}, Arquipelago, Revista Univ Dos Acores, 3: 255-264.

Farley K A, Basu A R, Craig H, 1993. He, Sr and Nd isotopic variations in lavas from the Juan Fernandez archipelago, SE Pacific. Contr Mineral Petr, 115: 75-87.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Natland J H, 2003. Capture of helium and other volatiles during the growth of olivine phenocrysts in picritic basalts from the Juan Fernandez Islands. J Petr, 44: 421-456.

Richards A F, 1962. Archipelago de Colon, Isla San Felix and Islas Juan Fernandez. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 14: 1-50.

Stuessy T F, Foland K A, Sutter J F, Sanders R W, Silva-O M, 1984. Botanical and geological significance of Potassium-Argon dates from the Juan Fernandez islands. Science, 225: 49-51.

Volcano Types

Shield(s)
Caldera(s)

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Minor
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
0
0

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Robinson Crusoe Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.