Cerro Azul

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 35.653°S
  • 70.761°W

  • 3788 m
    12425 ft

  • 357060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Cerro Azul.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Cerro Azul.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Cerro Azul.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
357060

1967 CE

3788 m / 12425 ft

35.653°S
70.761°W

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Maar(s)

Rock Types

Major
Dacite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Minor
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
9
158
3,832
720,948

Geological Summary

The Cerro Azul stratovolcano is at the southern end of the Descabezado Grande-Cerro Azul eruptive system. Steep-sided 3788-m-high Cerro Azul has a 500-m-wide summit crater that is open to the north. The three basaltic-andesite "La Resoloma Craters" scoria vents are located below the west flank and the two "Los Hornitos" scoria cones on the lower SW flank. Quizapu, a major vent on the northern flank of Cerro Azul, formed in 1846 during the first historical eruption, accompanied by the emission of voluminous dacitic lava flows that traveled both east into the Estero Barroso valley and west into the Río Blanquillo valley. Quizapu was later the source of one of the world's largest explosive eruptions of the 20th century in 1932, which created a 600-700 m wide, 150-m-deep crater and ejected 9.5 cu km of dacitic tephra.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Casertano L, 1963a. Chilean Continent. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 15: 1-55.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1972. Distribucion del volcanismo activo de Chile y la reciente erupcion del Volcan Villarrica. Instituto Geog Militar Chile, O/T 3491.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Hildreth W, Drake R E, 1992. Volcan Quizapu, Chilean Andes. Bull Volc, 54: 93-125.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1967 Aug 9 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1949 Apr 15 ± 5 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1933 1938 Jul 25 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1916 1932 Apr 21 Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Quizapu
1914 Sep 8 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Quizapu
[ 1913 Jan 15 ± 45 days ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Quizapu
1912 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1907 Jul 28 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
1906 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu
[ 1903 Jan ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2   Quizapu
1846 Nov 26 1853 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Quizapu

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Quizapu

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hornitos, Los Cone 2000 m 35° 43' 30" S 70° 48' 27" W

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Caracol Crater
Casitas, Volcán Fissure vent 2581 m 35° 41' 0" S 70° 48' 0" W
Quillayes, Crater los Crater 2397 m 35° 40' 0" S 70° 51' 0" W
Quizapu
    Medio, Cerro del
    Nuevo, Volcán
Crater 3292 m 35° 37' 59" S 70° 45' 22" W
Resolana, Crater la Crater 2467 m 35° 38' 0" S 70° 51' 0" W
Sin Nombre, Crater Crater 2271 m 35° 39' 0" S 70° 50' 0" W

Photo Gallery


Descabezado Grande (center) and Cerro Azul (middle right), seen here from the NW, are the most prominent features of a large volcanic field. The most active of the two large stratovolcanoes is 3810-m-high Cerro Azul. Quizapú, a vent that formed in 1846 on the northern flank of Cerro Azul, was the source of one of the world's largest explosive eruptions of the 20th century in April 1932. The eruption created a 600-700 m wide crater and ejected 9.5 cu km of dacitic tephra. The only historical eruption of Descabezado Grande took place later in 1932.

Photo by Jeff Post, 1988 (Smithsonian Institution).
The gaping crater of the 1932 Quizapú eruption (left-center) lies below the summit of Cerro Azul stratovolcano. Cerro Azul was constructed to the south of its twin volcano Descabezado Grande, where this photo was taken. Steep-sided Cerro Azul has a 500-m-wide summit crater that is open to the north. Quizapú was the source of one of the world's largest explosive eruptions of the 20th century in 1932. This eruption created a 600-700 m wide, 150 m deep crater and ejected 9.5 cu km of dacitic tephra.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Cerro Azul Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.