- Info & Contacts
Based on a pilot observation, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that the top of an ash plume from Callaqui was at 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 January. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery under clear skies.
Stable during June-August 1997
A report received in early December noted stable activity during June through August 1997. The same report also described a new seismic system and some initial tremor and seismic data. The Department of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations sponsored a project that began in August 1997; this enabled scientists to study Callaqui under the auspices of the Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) of SERNAGEOMIN and the Oficina Nacional de Emergencia del Ministerio del Interior.
The new seismic system includes a vertical-axis, 1-second-period geophone, a digitizer, and a computer. Upon collection, signals are telemetered and processesed by OVDAS in Temuco.
During August-October the tremor had characteristic frequency ranges from 0.9-1.6 Hz. For August-October the number of daily earthquakes averaged 0.96, 0.26, and 0.53 events/day. Seismic-amplitude averages (RSAM values) during the 3 months remained stable at 2.5.
Information Contacts: Gustavo Fuentealba C., Paola Peña S., and Klaus Bataille, Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Manantial 1710-Carmino del Alba, Temuco, Chile (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Based on a pilot observation and analysis of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Callaqui drifted NE on 22 January. The VAAC also reported that an ash plume from Nevados de Chillán, a nearby volcano 120 km N, drifted SE on 21 and 22 January.
According to news articles on 14 February, scientists from the Universidad de Concepción will install instruments to monitor Callaqui. Local residents reported feeling earthquakes and hearing constant rumbling noises during the previous few weeks.
Source: El Mostrador
Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.
Ash emission from summit
A small phreatic ash emission from its summit was observed in October 1980.
Reference. Moreno, H., 1985, Personal communication.
Steam jetting from fumaroles
Steam jets from that rose 300-400 m from fumaroles on the SE flank, 200 m below the summit, were observed during dry weather at about noon on 9 and 16 March.
Information Contacts: J. Naranjo, SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago; H. Moreno, Univ de Chile.
Continuous fumarolic activity at main vent and upper S flank
A late-March overflight made after a prolonged dry season enabled views of Callaqui with relatively low snow levels. At the time of the overflight, the main vent at the summit showed vigorous steam emissions and sulfur deposits were noted around the two main fumarolic vents. Similar levels of fumarolic activity were noted over the preceding three weeks. Both the south side of the summit and the uppermost southern flank, at the head of the glaciers feeding the Río Malla, had continuous fumarolic activity. Rocks in these areas were highly altered. Emissions from the southern flank were more diffuse.
Information Contacts: Jose Antonio Naranjo, Servicio Nacional de Geología e Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Av. Santa María 0104, Casilla 10465, Santiago, Chile (Email: email@example.com); Hugo Moreno Roa, Observatorío Volcanogía de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Manantial 1710-Carmino del Alba, Temuco, Chile (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org); Simon R. Young, British Geological Survey (BGS), Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, United Kingdom (Email: email@example.com).
Stable during June-August 1997
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|[ 2012 Jan 2 ]||[ 2012 Jan 2 ]||Uncertain|
|[ 2009 Jan 22 ]||[ 2009 Jan 22 ]||Uncertain|
|1980 Oct 16 ± 15 days||1980 Oct 16 ± 15 days||Confirmed||1||Historical Observations|
|[ 1937 Sep 18 ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|[ 1872 ]||[ Unknown ]||Discredited|
|[ 1864 Oct ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|1751 Dec 31||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Callaquen | Collaqui | Cordillera Blanca | Niullihuelco | Llagdeguin | Ketrudehuin | Unalavquen|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|The ice-capped, 3164-m-high Callaqui volcano has an elongated profile due to construction along an 11-km-long, SW-NE-trending fissure. As many as 16 well-preserved volcanic craters, the majority of which are on the SW flank, have erupted along this fissure and produced lava flows that mantle the volcano's flanks. Two large, ice-filled craters are located at the summit, and intense solfataric activity occurs on the southern side.
Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
|The broad glacier-covered summit of Volcán Copahue along the Chile/Argentina border is seen from the SE with conical Callaqui volcano in the distance. The lake-filled active crater of Copahue (lower center) has been the site of historical eruptions. The composite cone was constructed along the Chile/Argentina border within an 8-km-wide caldera formed 0.6 million years ago. The eastern summit crater is part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters that cuts across the western rim of the caldera.
Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán, 1992 (University of Chile).
|The small snow-free crater at the upper right, above and to the right of the light-colored area just right of the center of this NASA International Space Station image (with north to the upper left) is Trocon volcano. Trocon lies in Argentina NE of the Caldera del Agrio (lower right), whose floor contains several lakes, including the U-shaped one at lower right near the SE caldera wall. Trocon is a lava-dome complex with two summit craters and a pyroclastic cone. Snow-covered Callaqui volcano (bottom left-center) overlies the western rim of Caldera del Agrio.
NASA Space Station image ISS006-E-39998, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
There are no samples for Callaqui in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.
|Large Eruptions of Callaqui||Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).|
|WOVOdat||WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.|
|EarthChem||EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).|
|MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System||Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.|
|MIROVA||Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.|