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A group of young basaltic volcanoes lies in Argentina near the Chilean border, south of Lanín volcano. The Huanquihué volcano group consists of a NNE-SSW-trending chain of stratovolcanoes of Pleistocene age, some of which lie along the border. A Holocene compound cinder cone with three nested craters up to 400 m in diameter that occupied a valley NE of Cerro Huanquihué and a tuff cone constructed within glacial Lake Epulafquen lies at the northern end of the chain. Growth of this Holocene tuff cone, La Angostura ("The Narrowing"), created a peninsula that formed a narrow channel connecting Lake Epulafquen and Lake Huechulafquen. A very recent lava flow from the base of the Achín-Niellu cinder cone (also known as Cerro Escorial) traveled north into glacial Lago Epulafquen, forming a prominent lava delta. The Escorial lava flow is an extremely youthful flow that diverted local drainages and formed new lakes. A radiocarbon date of about 200 years before present was obtained from this flow, and local residents recount oral histories of the eruption, which was observed by their grandparents.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1750 ± 100 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (uncorrected)||Achín-Niellu (Volcán Escorial)|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Achin-Niellu||Cone||39° 52' 0" S||71° 33' 0" W|
|Angostura, La||Tuff ring||954 m||39° 47' 13" S||71° 31' 44" W|
|Caririñe||Stratovolcano||39° 49' 0" S||71° 40' 0" W|
|Chihuio||Stratovolcano||40° 10' 0" S||71° 49' 30" W|
|Escorial, Cerro (Achin-Niuellu)||Cone||39° 52' 0" S||71° 33' 0" W|
|Pirihueico||Stratovolcano||1940 m||39° 55' 0" S||71° 36' 0" W|
|Quelguenco||Stratovolcano||1692 m||39° 58' 0" S||71° 37' 0" W|
|The blocky, partially forested Escorial lava flow in the foreground originated from Achín-Niellu (also known as Achen Niyeu or Cerro Escorial) pyroclastic cone (center). The Escorial lava flow traveled north into glacial Lago Epulafquen, forming a prominent lava delta. Oral accounts of local residents stated that the flow was witnessed by their grandparents, who described the eruption of smoke, ash, and lava that changed the shoreline of the lake.
Photo by Moshe Inbar, 1995 (University of Haifa).
|The linear grayish lava flow extending into two lakes at the center originated from the Achín-Niellu cinder cone in the snow-covered area at the bottom-center of this NASA Space Station image with north to the upper left. The distal end of 7.5-km-long flow forms a large delta into Lago Epulafquen. A cinder cone separates this lake (known in the Machupe language as "Two Lakes") from the large lake at the upper right, Lago Huechulafquen. The lake at the right-center is Lago Curruhué.
NASA Space Station image ISS004-E-7197, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
|The blocky, partially forested Escorial lava flow in the foreground is seen from the north on a boat on Lago Epulafguen. The flow originated from the Achín-Niellu pyroclastic cone (center), which is part of the Huanquihué group of young basaltic volcanoes in Argentina near the Chilean border south of Lanín volcano. The Escorial lava flow was erupted about 200 years ago, and local residents recount oral histories of the eruption, which was observed by their grandparents.
Photo by Héctor Osvaldo González, 2007.
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Corbella H, Susana Alonso M, 1987. Post-glacial hydroclastic and pyroclastic deposits in the Lanin National Park, north Patagonian cordillera, Nequen, Argentina. Andean Volc Internatl Symp, Tucaman, Argentina, 9 p.
Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.
Inbar M, Risso C, Parica C, 1995. The morphological development of a young lava flow in the south western Andes - Neuquen, Argentina. Zeit Geomorph, 39: 479-487.
Lara L, Rodriguez C, Moreno H, Perez de Arce C, 2001. Geocronologia K-Ar y geoquimica del volcanismo plioceno superior-pleistoceno de los Andes del sur (39-42° S). Rev Geol Chile, 28: 67-90.