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The glacier-covered Volcán Minchinmávida, located west of Lago Reñihue, has a saddle-shaped summit with an elongated 3-km-wide caldera. The massive edifice is elongated in a NE-SW direction, and a youthful eruptive center is located on the ENE side of the complex. A major explosive eruption at the beginning of the Holocene produced the Amarillo Ignimbrite that may have created the now ice-filled summit caldera, and Holocene tephra deposits from summit and flank vents have been identified. An eruption from Minchinmávida was reported in 1742. Darwin observed the volcano in activity in 1834 on his renowned voyage that took him to the Galápagos Islands. The latest known eruption of basaltic-to-andesitic Minchinmávida, from February to March 1835, produced a lava flow from a flank crater and lahars that reached the coast at Punta Chana.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|1835 Feb 20||1835 Mar 15 ± 5 days||Confirmed||0||Historical Observations|
|1834 Nov 25||Unknown||Confirmed||2||Historical Observations|
|[ 1650 ± 50 years ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain|
|1550 ± 100 years||Unknown||Confirmed||4||Radiocarbon (corrected)|
|0700 ± 100 years||Unknown||Confirmed||Radiocarbon (corrected)|
|5500 BCE ± 150 years||Unknown||Confirmed||5||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Mic1 tephra|
|8400 BCE ± 150 years||Unknown||Confirmed||6||Radiocarbon (corrected)||Amarillo Ignimbrite|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Michinmahuida | Minchenmadon | Challapiren | Cayapiren | Chana | Cuchucavi | Quechucabi of Ovalle | Kechucavi of Molina | Michinmavida | Minchinmadon|
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|Pelado, Cerro||Cone||1971 m||42° 47' 0" S||72° 24' 0" W|
|Glacier-covered Volcán Minchinmávida is elongated along a NE-SW direction. The volcano has a mostly obscured 3-km-wide caldera, and a youthful eruptive center is located on the ENE side of the complex. An eruption from Minchinmávida was reported in 1742. Darwin observed the volcano in activity in 1834 on his renowned voyage that took him to the Galápagos Islands.
NASA Space Station image ISS006-E-42260, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Amigo A, Lara L E, Smith V C, 2013. Holocene record of large explosive eruptions from Chaiten and Michinmahuida volcanoes, Chile. Andean Geol, 40: 227-248.
Casertano L, 1963a. Chilean Continent. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 15: 1-55.
Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1972. Distribucion del volcanismo activo de Chile y la reciente erupcion del Volcan Villarrica. Instituto Geog Militar Chile, O/T 3491.
Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.
Moreno H, 1985. . (pers. comm.).
Naranjo J A, Stern C R, 2004. Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42° 30' - 45° S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone. Rev Geol Chile, 31: 225-240.
Watt S F L, Pyle D M, Mather T A, 2013. Evidence of mid- to late-Holocene explosive rhyolitic eruptions from Chaiten volcano, Chile. Andean Geol, 40: 216-226.