Brennisteinsfjoll

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 63.92°N
  • 21.83°W

  • 621 m
    2037 ft

  • 371040
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Brennisteinsfjoll.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Brennisteinsfjoll.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Brennisteinsfjoll.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
371040

1341 CE

621 m / 2037 ft

63.92°N
21.83°W

Volcano Types

Crater rows
Shield(s)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
33,526
33,526
163,469
203,012

Geological Summary

The Brennisteinsfjöll volcanic system, located east of Kleifarvatn lake, consists of a series of NE-SW-trending crater rows and small shield volcanoes. Postglacial and historical basaltic lavas cover a wide area. An eruption in 1000 CE was dated by its occurrence at the time of a meeting of the Icelandic outdoor parliament at Thingvellier. The most recent eruption took place in the 14th century.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Einarsson T, 1960. The geology of Hellisheidi. Natturufraedingurinn, 30: 151-175 (in Icelandic).

Gudmundsson A T, 1986b. Iceland-Fires. Reykjavik: Vaka-Helgafell, 168 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Jakobsson S P, Jonsson J, Shido F, 1978. Petrology of the western Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. J Petr, 19: 669-705.

Johannesson H, Saemundsson K, 1998. Geological map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Tectonics. Icelandic Inst Nat Hist, Reykjavik.

Jonsson J, 1972. Eldborgir undir Geitahlid. Natturufraedingurinn, 42: 59-66 (in Icelandic).

Jonsson J, 1974. Obrinnisholar. Natturufraedingurinn, 44: 109-119 (in Icelandic).

Jonsson J, 1977b. Tvi-Bollar and Tvibollahraun. Natturufraedingurinn, 47: 103-109 (in Icelandic).

Jonsson J, 1978. Geology of the Reykjanes Peninsula. Orkustofnun Jardhitadeild, OS-JHD-7831, Geol maps and 303 p text (in Icelandic).

Jonsson J, 1983. Volcanic eruptions in historical time on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. Natturufraedingurinn, 52: 127-139 (in Icelandic with English summary).

Saemundsson K, Einarsson S, 1980. Geological map of Iceland, sheet 3, south-west Iceland. Icelandic Museum Nat Hist & Iceland Geodetic Surv, 1:250,000 geol map.

Steinthorsson S, et al., 2002. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript.

Thordarson T, Hoskuldsson A, 2008. Postglacial eruptions in Iceland. Jokull, 58: 197-228.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1341 ± 1 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Grafeldur (Selvogshraun)
1200 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Kongsfell
1000 Jun 25 ± 4 days Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations Eldborg at Lambafell
0950 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Rjupnadyngjur
0910 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kista (Breiddalshraun)
0875 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Tvibollar
1040 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Eldborg at Brennisteinsfjöllum
2660 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Leitin
9000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Heidin Há

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Brennisteinsgigar

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Heidin Há Shield volcano 626 m 63° 58' 0" N 21° 38' 0" W
Herdisarvikurhraun Shield volcano 63° 55' 0" N 21° 50' 0" W
Hlidarhraun Shield volcano 63° 52' 0" N 21° 39' 0" W
Leitin Shield volcano 430 m 64° 1' 0" N 21° 32' 0" W
Rjupnadyngjur Shield volcano 64° 2' 0" N 21° 48' 0" W
Strompar Shield volcano 550 m 63° 59' 0" N 21° 40' 0" W

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Brunagigir Crater Row 64° 0' 0" N 21° 42' 0" W
Eldborg a Brennisteinsfjollum Crater Row 520 m 63° 55' 0" N 21° 50' 0" W
Eldborg Nyrdri at Lambafell Crater Row 440 m 64° 1' 0" N 21° 30' 0" W
Eldborg Sydri at Lambafell Crater Row 64° 1' 0" N 21° 31' 0" W
Eldborg-Drottningu Crater Row 440 m 64° 0' 0" N 21° 38' 0" W
Eyra Fissure vent 64° 0' 0" N 21° 40' 0" W
Gigir at Storkonugja Crater Row 63° 58' 0" N 21° 44' 0" W
Grafeldur Crater Row 63° 57' 0" N 21° 46' 0" W
Helgadalshraun Crater Row 64° 0' 0" N 21° 40' 0" W
Holmshraun Crater Row 64° 3' 0" N 21° 41' 0" W
Kalfadalshraun Crater Row 200 m 63° 53' 0" N 21° 57' 0" W
Kista Crater Row 63° 56' 0" N 21° 48' 0" W
Kistufell Fissure vent 600 m 63° 57' 0" N 21° 48' 0" W
Kongsfell Crater Row 500 m 64° 0' 0" N 21° 40' 0" W
Litla Eldborg undir Geitlahlid Crater Row 80 m 63° 51' 0" N 21° 59' 0" W
Rauduhnukagigir Crater Row 340 m 64° 1' 0" N 21° 38' 0" W
Slattudalshraun Crater Row 63° 52' 0" N 21° 59' 0" W
Stora Eldborg undir Geitlahlid Crater Row 140 m 63° 51' 0" N 22° 0' 0" W
Stori Bolli Crater Row 560 m 63° 59' 0" N 21° 45' 0" W
Svartihryggur Crater Row 63° 58' 0" N 21° 41' 0" W
Thrihnukar Fissure vent 540 m 64° 0' 0" N 21° 41' 0" W
Tvibollar Crater Row 63° 59' 0" N 21° 45' 0" W
Vilfilfellshraun Crater Row 340 m 64° 1' 0" N 21° 37' 0" W
Vordufellsborgir Fissure vent 63° 54' 0" N 21° 52' 0" W

Photo Gallery


The Brennisteinsfjöll volcanic system, located east of Kleifarvatn lake, consists of a series of NE-SW-trending crater rows and small shield volcanoes. Brennisteinsfjöll is seen here in an aerial view from the south with youthful light-colored lava flows spilling over an E-W-trending coastal scarp. An eruption in 1000 AD was dated by its occurrence at the time of a meeting of the Icelandic outdoor parliament at Thingvellier. The most recent eruption at Brennisteinsfjöll took place in the 14th century.

Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1983 (Icelandic National Energy Authority).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Brennisteinsfjoll Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.