Hveravellir

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 64.75°N
  • 19.98°W

  • 1360 m
    4461 ft

  • 371080
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Hveravellir.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Hveravellir.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Hveravellir.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
371080

950 CE

1360 m / 4461 ft

64.75°N
19.98°W

Volcano Types

Subglacial
Caldera
Shield(s)
Fissure vent(s)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Rhyolite

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
5
11,973

Geological Summary

The Hveravellir central volcano lies at the northern end of an active volcanic zone that extends to the NE from the Reykjanes Peninsula. Hveravellir central volcano occupies the NE half of the massive Langjökull icecap, east of the prominent Pleistocene table mountain, Erikskökull. A summit caldera lies beneath the ice. The Kjalhraun shield volcano east of Langjökull produced about 11 cu km of lava about 7800 years ago. Several small shield volcanoes have been constructed along flank fissure zones, producing postglacial lava flows that flank Langjökull on the northern, western, and eastern sides. One of the most prominent of these is a small shield volcano that was formed at the site of the massive Hallmundahraun lava flow, which covers about 240 sq km and was erupted about 950 CE. The Geysir thermal area, containing Iceland's largest geysers, lies in the Haukadalur basin, near the southern end of the lengthy fissure system extending from the Hveravellir central volcano.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Bourgeois O, Dauteuil O, Van Vliet-Lanoe B, 1998. Pleistocene subglacial volcanism in Iceland: tectonic implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 164: 165-178.

Eason D E, Sinton J M, 2009. Lava shields and fissure eruptions of the Western Volcanic Zone, Iceland: evidence for magma chambers and crustal interaction. J Volc Geotherm Res, 186: 331-348.

Gudmundsson A T, 1986b. Iceland-Fires. Reykjavik: Vaka-Helgafell, 168 p.

Johannesson H, 1989. Age of the Hallmundarhraun lava flow in Borgarfjordur. Fjolrit Natturufraedistofnunar, 9: 1-12 (in Icelandic with English summary).

Johannesson H, Jakobsson S P, Saemundsson K, 1982. Geological map of Iceland, sheet 6, south Iceland. Icelandic Museum Nat Hist & Iceland Geodetic Surv, 1:250,000 geol map, 2nd edition.

Johannesson H, Saemundsson K, 1998. Geological map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Tectonics. Icelandic Inst Nat Hist, Reykjavik.

Kjartansson G, 1964. Geological Map of Iceland, Sheet 5, Central Iceland. Reykjavik: Museum Nat Hist Dept Geol Geog, 1:250,000 geol map.

Piper J D A, 1973. Volcanic history and tectonics of the North Langjokull region central Iceland. Can J Earth Sci, 10: 164-179.

Sinton J, Gronvold K, Saemundsson K, 2005. Postglacial eruptive history of the Western Volcanic Zone, Iceland. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 6(12): 10.1029/2005CG001021.

Steinthorsson S, et al., 2002. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript.

Thordarson T, Hoskuldsson A, 2008. Postglacial eruptions in Iceland. Jokull, 58: 197-228.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0950 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Hallmundahraun
2050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) Lambahraun
2550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Krákshraun
3550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Strytuhraun
5850 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Tephrochronology Kjalhraun
8600 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Leggjarbrjotur

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Langjökull

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hagafell Shield volcano
Hallmundarhraun Shield volcano 757 m 64° 51' 0" N 20° 9' 0" W
Jökulstallar Shield volcano
Kjalhraun Shield volcano 834 m 64° 49' 0" N 19° 35' 0" W
Krákshraun Shield volcano
Lambahraun Shield volcano 678 m 64° 25' 0" N 20° 25' 0" W
Leggjabrjótur Shield volcano
Solkatla
    Leggjarbrjotur
Shield volcano 1026 m 64° 42' 0" N 19° 50' 0" W
Strytuhraun Shield volcano

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Krakshraun Fissure vent 1000 m 64° 59' 0" N 19° 50' 0" W
Sólkatla Crater
Svartahraun Crater Row 900 m 64° 32' 0" N 20° 21' 0" W

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Geysir Geyser 120 m 64° 19' 0" N 20° 18' 0" W
Haukadalur Thermal 120 m 64° 20' 0" N 20° 17' 0" W

Photo Gallery


The Geysir thermal area, containing Iceland's largest geysers, lies in the Haukadalur basin, near the southern end of the lengthy fissure system extending from Hveravellir central volcano. Hveravellir volcano occupies the NE half of the massive Langjökull icecap. A summit caldera lies beneath the ice. Postglacial lava flows flank Langjökull on the northern, western, and eastern sides. The massive Hallmundahraun lava flow, which covers 200 sq km, was erupted shortly after 900 AD.

Photo by Bill Rose, 1975 (Michigan Technological University).
Iceland's largest geysers are located in the Haukadalur basin, at the southern end of a fissure system extending from Hveravellir central volcano. Two geysers remain active, Strockur and Smid. Strockur geyser has not built a geyserite cone, but its rim is surrounded by a pool of water. The geyser erupts every 10-15 minutes with a short-lived burst that throws steam and water to heights of 20 m or more.

Photo by Bill Rose, 1975 (Michigan Technological University).
Hveravellir volcano occupies the NE half of the massive Langjökull icecap, which is seen here in an aerial view from the north with Hvítárvatn lake on the opposite side reflecting the sun. A summit caldera lies beneath the ice. One of the most prominent of a series of small shield volcanoes and postglacial lava flows flanking Langjökull produced the massive Hallmundahraun lava flow, which covers 200 sq km, and was erupted shortly after 900 AD. The Geysir thermal area, containing Iceland's largest geysers, lies in the Haukadalur basin.

Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1990 (Icelandic National Energy Authority).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Hveravellir Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.