Fremrinamur

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 65.43°N
  • 16.65°W

  • 939 m
    3080 ft

  • 373070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Fremrinamur.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Fremrinamur.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Fremrinamur.

Fremrinamur central volcano, NNE of Askja and SE of Myvatn lake, is a volcanic system that is being constructed over the basaltic Ketildyngja shield volcano. Associated fissure systems, including the Sveinar fissure, extend 130 km to the northern coast of Iceland. The Kerlingardyngja shield volcano to the south is also part of the Fremrinamur volcanic system and formed about 6000 years ago. Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake formed as a result of the eruption of the massive 70-km-long older Laxarhraun lava flow from Ketildyngja shield volcano about 3800 years ago. The latest eruption from Fremrinamur produced the Burfellshraun lava flow about 2500-3000 years ago.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1823 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Kraeduborgir (Burfellshraun)
2300 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Ketildyngja
4000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Kerlingardyngja
4050 BCE ± 1050 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Sveinar (Rauduborgir) fissure

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kerlingardynga Shield volcano 900 m 65° 23' 0" N 16° 38' 0" W
Ketildyngja
    Ketil
Shield volcano 939 m 65° 26' 0" N 16° 39' 0" W
Leirhafnarskord Vent 100 m 66° 25' 0" N 16° 29' 0" W
Skjaldbaka
    Schildkrote
Shield volcano 760 m 65° 27' 0" N 16° 44' 0" W
Skuggadyngja Shield volcano 870 m 65° 28' 0" N 16° 38' 0" W
Talabunga
    Taglabunga
Shield volcano 652 m 65° 30' 0" N 16° 32' 0" W


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kraeduborgir Fissure vent 418 m 65° 38' 0" N 16° 35' 0" W
Raudholar Fissure vent 410 m 65° 52' 0" N 16° 23' 0" W
Rauduborgir Fissure vent 407 m 65° 35' 0" N 16° 29' 0" W
Sveinar Fissure vent 406 m 65° 45' 0" N 16° 26' 0" W
Fremrinamur central volcano, NNE of Askja and SE of Myvatn lake, is a volcanic system that is being constructed over the Ketildyngja shield volcano (center). Associated fissure systems, including the Sveinar fissure, extend 130 km to the northern coast of Iceland. Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake formed as a result of the eruption of the massive 70-km-long older Laxarhraun lava flow from Ketildyngja shield volcano about 3800 years ago. The latest eruption from Fremrinamur produced the Burfellshraun lava flow about 2500-3000 years ago.

Photo by Richie Williams, 1981 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Ketildyngja shield volcano, the most prominent feature of the Fremrinamur volcanic system, contains a steep-walled summit crater. Associated fissure systems, including the Sveinar fissure, extend 130 km to the northern coast of Iceland. Ketildyngja was the source of a massive 70-km-long lava flow about 3800 years ago that was responsible for the formation of Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake.

Photo by Michael Ryan, 1984 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The eastern rim of the summit crater of Ketildyngja shield volcano overlooks flat-lying lavas of the Fremrinamur volcanic system on the right and steep-sloped Pleistocene subglacial lavas on the left. The Fremrinamur fissure system extends 130 km north of Ketildyngja to the northern coast of Iceland.

Photo by Michael Ryan, 1984 (U.S. Geological Survey).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Gudmundsson A T, 1986b. Iceland-Fires. Reykjavik: Vaka-Helgafell, 168 p.

Gudmundsson A, Backstrom K, 1991. Structure and development of the Sveinagja graben, northeast Iceland. Tectonophysics, 200: 111-125.

Hjartardottir A R, Páll Einarsson P, Sigurdsson H, 2009. The fissure swarm of the Askja volcanic system along the divergent plate boundary of N Iceland. Bull Volc, 71: 961-975.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Sigurdsson H, Sparks R S J, 1978. Rifting episode in North Iceland in 1874-1875 and the eruptions of Askja and Sveinagja. Bull Volc, 41: 149-167.

Steinthorsson S, et al., 2002. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Shield(s)
Fissure vent(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Rhyolite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
476
19,143

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Fremrinamur Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.