Theistareykjarbunga

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 65.88°N
  • 16.83°W

  • 564 m
    1850 ft

  • 373090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

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The Holocene Theistareykjarbunga basaltic shield volcano (also known as Theistareykir) and its associated N-S fissure system extends from north of Myvatn lake to the northern coast of Iceland. This low, 564-m-high shield volcano is the northernmost subaerial volcanic system along the eastern volcanic zone of Iceland. The Theistareykjarbunga segment is dominated by the 30 cu km Storaviti shield volcano, which was formed slightly after deglaciation. The youngest dated eruption produced the Theistareykjahraun lava flow about 3000-2700 years ago.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0900 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Storihver (Theistareykjahraun)
6800 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Borgarhraun and other flows
9500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Theistareykjabunga shield volcano

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Theistareykir

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Storahversmor Shield volcano 370 m 65° 55' 0" N 17° 1' 0" W
Storaviti Shield volcano 540 m 65° 52' 0" N 16° 51' 0" W

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Borgahraun Fissure vent 65° 50' 0" N 16° 56' 0" W
Theistareykjahraun Fissure vent 65° 54' 0" N 17° 2' 0" W
Stora-Viti crater, seen here from the SE, caps the low, 564-m-high Theistareykjarbunga shield volcano, the northernmost subaerial volcanic system along the eastern volcanic zone of Iceland. The Holocene Theistareykjarbunga shield volcano and its associated N-S fissure system extend from north of Myvatn lake to the northern coast of Iceland. The youngest dated eruption produced the Theistareykjahraun lava flow about 2700 years ago.

Photo by Michael Ryan, 1984 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The small Litla-Viti pit crater (left) lies immediately SSW of Stora-Viti crater (right) at the summit of the very low-angle Theistareykjarbunga shield volcano. The low, 564-m-high shield volcano is part of the northernmost subaerial volcanic system of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone.

Photo by Michael Ryan, 1984 (U.S. Geological Survey).
An aerial view from the north shows features of the Theistareykjabunga and Krafla volcanic systems. The very-low-relief Theistareykjabunga volcano, capped by the summit craters of Stora-Viti and Litla-Viti, appears at the lower left. The topographically indistinct Krafla caldera (center) is cut by prominent fissure swarms. The flat, mesa-like areas at the right and other topographically prominent features throughout the photo are table mountains and ridges formed during Pleistocene subglacial eruptions.

Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1977 (Icelandic National Energy Authority).
An aerial view from the north shows features of the Theistareykjabunga and Krafla volcanic systems. The very-low-relief Theistareykjabunga volcano, capped by the summit craters of Stora-Viti and Litla-Viti, appears at the lower left. The topographically indistinct Krafla caldera (center) is cut by prominent fissure swarms. The flat, mesa-like areas at the right and other topographically prominent features throughout the photo are table mountains and ridges formed during Pleistocene subglacial eruptions.

Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1977 (Icelandic National Energy Authority).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Gudmundsson A T, 1986b. Iceland-Fires. Reykjavik: Vaka-Helgafell, 168 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Johannesson H, Saemundsson K, 1998. Geological map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Tectonics. Icelandic Inst Nat Hist, Reykjavik.

Sigurdsson H, Sparks R S J, 1978. Rifting episode in North Iceland in 1874-1875 and the eruptions of Askja and Sveinagja. Bull Volc, 41: 149-167.

Slater L, McKenzie D, Gronvold K, Shimizu N, 2001. Melt generation and movement beneath Theistareykir, NE Iceland. J Petr, 42: 321-254.

Steinthorsson S, et al., 2002. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript.

Stracke A, Zindler A, Salters V J M, McKenzie D, Gronvold K, 2003. The dynamics of melting beneath Theistareykir, northern Iceland. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 4: doi:10.1029/2002GC000347.

Thordarson T, Hoskuldsson A, 2008. Postglacial eruptions in Iceland. Jokull, 58: 197-228.

Volcano Types

Shield
Fissure vent(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
36
3,711
25,779

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Theistareykjarbunga Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.