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The subglacial Esjufjöll volcano at the SE part of the Vatnajökull icecap, north of Öraefajökull volcano, consists of the Snaehetta central volcano and a large caldera. Most of the volcano, including the 40 sq km caldera, is covered by the icecap, but parts of the SE flank are exposed in NW-SE-trending ridges. Most of the exposed rocks are mildly alkaline basalts, but small amounts of rhyolitic rocks are also present. A large jökulhlaup that came down the Jokulsa a Breidamerkursandi along the coast SE of Vatnajökull in the beginning of September 1927 was accompanied by a sulfur stench, and on one occasion ashfall on the Breidamerkurjökull considered to have possibly originated from Esjufjöll. Although Holocene eruptions have not been confirmed from Esjufjöll, earthquake swarms that could indicate magma movements were detected in October 2002.
Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).
|Start Date||Stop Date||Eruption Certainty||VEI||Evidence||Activity Area or Unit|
|[ 1927 Sep 5 ± 4 days ]||[ Unknown ]||Uncertain||1|
This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.
|Feature Name||Feature Type||Elevation||Latitude||Longitude|
|The subglacial Esjufjöll volcano rises at the upper left part of the photo above Breidamerkurjökull glacier, with its prominent medial moraines. Icebergs calved from the massive glacier can be seen floating in Jökulsárlón lake, which drains into the Atlantic Ocean (extreme lower right). Esjufjöll is located at the SE part of the Vatnajökull icecap, north of Öræfajökull volcano, and may contain a central caldera. A minor eruption in 1927 that produced a large jökulhlaup is the only known historical activity from Esjufjöll.
Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1986, (Orkustofnon, Icelandic National Energy Authority).
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.
Bjornsson H, Einarsson P, 1990. Volcanoes beneath Vatnajokull, Iceland: evidence from radio echo-sounding, earthquakes and jokulhlaups. Jokull, 40: 147-168.
Holm F, Tronnes R G, Gronvold K, Torfason H, 2003. Petrology and geochemistry of the Esjufjoll central volcano, SE Iceland. Summer School Tectonic-Magmatic Interaction, 31 August - 8 September, 2003, Geysir, South Iceland, Abs vol, Nordic Volc Inst Rep 0303, p 20-21.
Jakobsson S P, Jonasson K, Sigurdsson I A, 2008. The three igneous rock series of Iceland. Jokull, 58: 117-138.
Johannesson H, Saemundsson K, 1998. Geological map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Tectonics. Icelandic Inst Nat Hist, Reykjavik.
Steinthorsson S, et al., 2002. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript.
Thordarson T, Hoskuldsson A, 2008. Postglacial eruptions in Iceland. Jokull, 58: 197-228.