Melbourne

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 74.35°S
  • 164.7°E

  • 2732 m
    8961 ft

  • 390015
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Melbourne.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Melbourne.

Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

03/1983 (SEAN 08:03) Fumarolic activity unchanged since 1972


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

03/1983 (SEAN 08:03) Fumarolic activity unchanged since 1972

". . . Observations in December 1972 indicated three main areas of steaming ground in which temperatures as high as 59°C were recorded at depths of 0.25 m. Numerous fumarolic ice towers were scattered throughout the summit area (Lyon and Giggenbach, 1974). Two members of the U.S. Antarctic Research Program climbed the mountain in January 1983. No change was noted in the number, size, and distribution of ice towers and steaming ground from the 1972 reports. Measured ground temperature temperatures were also similar to those in 1972. There was no evidence of any change in the activity over the last 10 years."

Reference. Lyon, G.L., and Giggenbach, W.F., 1974, Geothermal activity in Victoria Land, Antarctica: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 17, p. 511-521.

Further Reference. Keys, J.R., McIntosh, W.C., and Kyle, P.R., 1983, Volcanic activity of Mount Melbourne, North Victoria Land: Antarctic Journal of the United States, 1983 review, v. 18, no. 5, p. 10-11.

Information Contact: P. Kyle, New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Tech.

Mount Melbourne is a large undissected stratovolcano along the western coast of the Ross Sea in Antarctica's northern Victoria Land. The 2732-m-high glacier-clad stratovolcano lies at the center of a volcanic field containing both subglacial and subaerial vents that are situated along a dominantly N-S trend. A large number of scoria cones, lava domes, viscous lava flows, and lava fields are exposed at the summit and upper flanks. A number of very young-looking cones are located at the summit and on the flanks. Tephra layers are found within and on top of ice layers, and the most recent eruption may have been only a few hundred years ago. The volcano displays fumarolic activity that is concentrated along a NNE-SSW line cutting through the summit area and along a line of phreatomagmatic craters on the southern rim of the summit crater. Prominent ice towers and pinnacles were formed from steam condensation around fumarolic vents.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1750 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Shield Nunatak Cone
Mount Melbourne towers above the ice shelf of the Ross Sea in Antarctica's northern Victoria Land. The 2732-m-high glacier-clad stratovolcano has a large number of scoria cones, lava domes, and viscous lava flows. Lava fields are exposed at the summit and upper flanks. A number of very young-looking cones are located at the summit and on the flanks. The volcano displays fumarolic activity, and tephra layers are found within and on top of ice layers. The most recent eruption may have been only a few hundred years ago.

Photo by Arrigo Caserta, 2000 (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Roma).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Dort W, 1972. Late Cenozoic volcanism in Antarctica. In: Adie R J (ed) {Antarctic Geol and Geophys}, IUGS Ser-B(1): 645-652.

Keys J R, McIntosh W C, Kyle P R, 1983. Volcanic activity of Mount Melbourne, Northern Victoria Land. Antarctic J U S, 18: 10-11.

LeMasurier W E, Thomson J W (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans. Washington, D C: Amer Geophys Union, 487 p.

Lyon G L, Giggenbach W F, 1974. Geothermal activity in Victoria Land, Antarctica. New Zeal J Geol Geophys, 17: 511-521.

Nathan S, Schulte F J, 1968. Geology and petrology of the Campbell-Aviator Divide, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, Part 1 Post Paleozoic rocks. New Zeal J Geol Geophys, 11: 940-975.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera
Lava dome(s)
Scoria cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
0
0

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Melbourne Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.