Penguin Island

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 62.1°S
  • 57.93°W

  • 180 m
    590 ft

  • 390031
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Penguin Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Penguin Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Penguin Island.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1905 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Lichenometry NE flank (Petrel Crater)
1850 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations Deacon Peak
1683 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Lichenometry Deacon Peak

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Photo Gallery


The formation of Petrel maar on the eastern side of Penguin Island was dated at about 1905 CE by the lichenometric method. This supports a whalers report of an eruption sometime before December 1909 that was mistakenly attributed to Bridgeman Island. The 300-m-wide, ice-filled Petrel maar is one of two principal vents on Penguin Island.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
See title for photo information.
The small 1.4 x 1.7 km Penguin Island, seen here from the SW, is located off the SE coast of King George Island in Antarctica's Shetland Islands. The most prominent feature on Penguin Island is Deacon Peak (center), a basaltic scoria cone with a 350-m-wide well-preserved summit crater. Petrel Crater, a 300-m-wide maar, is located behind Deacon Peak, out of view in this photo. Both Deacon Peak and Petrel Crater were formed within the past few hundred years.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
See title for photo information.
Deacon Peak scoria cone on Penguin Island contains a 350-m-wide, 75-m-deep summit crater. The upper slopes of the cone are composed of reddish oxidized pyroclastic rocks and are free of ice in an otherwise ice-mantled part of Antarctica. The formation of Deacon Peak was dated at about 300 years ago using lichenometry, which is based on the calibration of lichen growth rates.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
See title for photo information.
This large block, about 4 cu m in size, was expelled by phreatomagmatic explosions accompanying the formation of Petrel Crater maar on Penguin Island. The eruption, which formed a low 300-m-wide crater about 100 years ago, marked the most recent activity on Penguin Island. The growth rate of the reddish-orange lichens mantling the upper part of the ejected block was used to estimate the date of the eruption.

Photo by Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


There are no samples for Penguin Island in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites