The Southern Thule island group, at the southern end of the South Sandwich island arc bordering the Scotia Sea, consist of three stratovolcanoes constructed along an E-W-trending line. An ice-filled 1.5-2 km wide caldera truncates the summit of andesitic-dacitic Thule, the westernmost island, and a 4.3 x 4.8 km submarine caldera forms Douglas Strait between Thule and basaltic-to-dacitic Cook Island. Another possible submarine caldera lies east of Cook Island and south of basaltic-andesite Bellingshausen, the easternmost island. The age of Cook Island is uncertain, but steam was observed at the summit crater of Thule Island in 1962, and ash was seen on the surface of the ice there and on Bellingshausen Island, indicating possible 20th-century eruptions (Baker, 1968). Bellingshausen has a youthful, relatively ice-free profile and an extensive well-preserved lava field on its S flank, where a small explosion crater formed sometime between 1964 and 1986.
The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.
Baker P E, 1968. Comparative volcanology and petrology of the Atlantic island arcs. Bull Volc, 32: 189-206.
Berninghausen W H, Neumann van Padang M, 1960. Antarctica. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 10: 1-32.
IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..
Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.
Leat P T, Day S J, Tate A J, Martin T J, Owen M J, Tappin D R, 2013. Volcanic evolution of the South Sandwich volcanic arc, South Atlantic, from multibeam bathymetry. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 265, 60-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.08.013
LeMasurier W E, Thomson J W (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans. Washington, D C: Amer Geophys Union, 487 p.
Smellie J L, Morris P, Leat P T, Turner D B, Houghton D, 1998. Submarine caldera and other volcanic observations in Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands. Antarctic Sci, 10: 171-172.