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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Nyiragongo (DR Congo) Lava lake persists during June-November 2019

Ebeko (Russia) Frequent moderate explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall continue through November 2019

Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) Intermittent ash plumes with significant gas and steam emissions during January 2016-December 2017

Sabancaya (Peru) Explosions, ash and SO2 plumes, thermal anomalies, and lava dome growth during June-November 2019

Karangetang (Indonesia) Lava flows, strong thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam emissions, and ash plumes during May-November 2019

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) New vent, lava fountaining, lava flow, and ash plumes in late September-October 2019

Nyamuragira (DR Congo) Strong thermal anomalies and fumaroles within the summit crater during June-November 2019

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Intermittent gas-and-steam emissions and thermal anomalies during June-November 2019

Kerinci (Indonesia) Intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes during June-early November 2019

Bezymianny (Russia) Lava dome growth, ongoing thermal anomalies, moderate gas-steam emissions, June-November 2019

Mayon (Philippines) Gas-and-steam plumes and summit incandescence during May-October 2019

Merapi (Indonesia) Low-volume dome growth continues during April-September 2019 with rockfalls and small block-and-ash flows



Nyiragongo (DR Congo) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyiragongo

DR Congo

1.52°S, 29.25°E; summit elev. 3470 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake persists during June-November 2019

Nyiragongo is a stratovolcano with a 1.2 km-wide summit crater containing an active lava lake that has been present since at least 1971. It is located the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, part of the western branch of the East African Rift System. Typical volcanism includes strong and frequent thermal anomalies, primarily due to the lava lake, incandescence, gas-and-steam plumes, and seismicity. This report updates activity during June through November 2019 with the primary source information from monthly reports by the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) and satellite data.

In the July 2019 monthly report, OVG stated that the lava lake level had dropped during the month, with incandescence only visible at night (figure 68). In addition, the small eruptive cone within the crater, which has been active since 2014, decreased in activity during this timeframe. A MONUSCO (United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo) helicopter overflight took photos of the lava lake and observed that the level had begun to rise on 27 July. Seismicity was relatively moderate throughout this reporting period; however, on 9-16 July and 21 August strong seismic swarms were recorded.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Webcam images of Nyiragongo on 20 July 2019 where incandescence is not visible during the day (left) but is observed at night (right). Incandescence is accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. Courtesy of OVG.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data continued to show frequent and strong thermal anomalies within 5 km of the crater summit through November 2019 (figure 69). Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reported almost daily thermal hotspots (more than 600) within the summit crater between June 2019 through November. These data are corroborated with Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery and a photo from OVG on 19 December 2019 showing the active lava lake (figures 70 and 71).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. Thermal anomalies at Nyiragongo from 3 January through November 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were frequent and strong. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) showed ongoing thermal activity (bright yellow-orange) at Nyiragongo during June through November 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Photo of the active lava lake in the summit crater at Nyiragongo on 19 December 2019. Incandescence is accompanied by a gas-and-steam plume. Courtesy of OVG via Charles Balagizi.

Geologic Background. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. The steep slopes of a stratovolcano contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century. Two older stratovolcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks, which is characterized by the eruption of foiditic rocks. The extremely fluid 1977 lava flows caused many fatalities, as did lava flows that inundated portions of the major city of Goma in January 2002.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Charles Balagizi (Twitter: @CharlesBalagizi, https://twitter.com/CharlesBalagizi).


Ebeko (Russia) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent moderate explosions, ash plumes, and ashfall continue through November 2019

Activity at Ebeko includes frequent explosions that have generated ash plumes reaching altitudes of 1.5-6 km over the last several years, with the higher altitudes occurring since mid-2018 (BGVN 43:03, 43:06, 43:12, 44:07). Ash frequently falls in Severo-Kurilsk (7 km ESE), which is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT). This activity continued during June through November 2019; the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Explosive activity during December 2018 through November 2019 often sent ash plumes to altitudes between 2.2 to 4.5 km, or heights of 1.1 to 3.4 km above the crater (table 8). Eruptions since 1967 have originated from the northern crater of the summit area (figure 20). Webcams occasionally captured ash explosions, as seen on 27 July 2019(figure 21). KVERT often reported the presence of thermal anomalies; particularly on 23 September 2019, a Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image showed a strong thermal signature at the crater summit accompanied by an ash plume (figure 22). Ashfall is relatively frequent in Severo-Kurilsk (7 km ESE) and can drift in different direction based on the wind pattern, which can be seen in satellite imagery on 30 October 2019 deposited NE and SE from the crater(figure 23).

Table 8. Summary of activity at Ebeko, December 2018-November 2019. S-K is Severo-Kurilsk (7 km ESE of the volcano). TA is thermal anomaly in satellite images. Data courtesy of KVERT.

Date Plume Altitude (km) Plume Distance Plume Directions Other Observations
30 Nov-07 Dec 2018 3.6 -- E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 1, 4 Dec.
07-14 Dec 2018 3.5 -- E Explosions.
25 Jan-01 Feb 2019 2.3 -- -- Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 27 Jan.
02-08 Feb 2019 2.3 -- -- Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 4 Feb.
08-15 Feb 2019 2.5 -- -- Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 11 Feb.
15-22 Feb 2019 3.6 -- -- Explosions.
22-26 Feb 2019 2.5 -- -- Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 23-26 Feb.
01-02, 05 Mar 2019 -- -- -- Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 1, 5 Mar.
08-10 Mar 2019 4 30 km ENE Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 9-10 Mar.
15-19, 21 Mar 2019 4.5 -- -- Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 15-16, 21 Mar.
22, 24-25, 27-28 Mar 2019 4.2 -- -- Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 24-25, 27 Mar.
29-31 Mar, 01, 04 Apr 2019 3.2 -- -- Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 31 Mar. TA on 31 Mar.
09 Apr 2019 2.2 -- -- Explosions.
12-15 Apr 2019 3.2 -- -- Explosions. TA on 13 Apr.
21-22, 24 Apr 2019 -- -- -- Explosions.
26 Apr-03 May 2019 3 -- -- Explosions.
04, 06-07 May 2019 3.5 -- -- Explosions. TA on 6 May.
12-13 May 2019 2.5 -- -- Explosions. TA 12-13 May.
16-20 May 2019 2.5 -- -- Explosions. TA on 16-17 May.
25-28 May 2019 3 -- -- Explosions. TA on 27-28 May.
03 Jun 2019 3 -- E Explosions.
12 Jun 2019 -- -- -- TA.
14-15 Jun 2019 2.5 -- NW, NE Explosions.
21-28 Jun 2019 -- -- -- TA on 23 June.
28 Jun-05 Jul 2019 4.5 -- Multiple Explosions. TA on 29 Jun, 1 Jul.
05-12 Jul 2019 3.5 -- S Explosions. TA on 11 Jul.
15-16 Jul 2019 2 -- S, SE Explosions. TA on 13-16, 18 Jul.
20-26 Jul 2019 4 -- Multiple Explosions. TA on 18, 20, 25 Jul
25-26, 29 Jul, 01 Aug 2019 2.5 -- Multiple Explosions.
02, 04 Aug 2019 3 -- SE Explosions. TA on 2, 4 Aug.
10-16 Aug 2019 3 -- SE Explosions. TA on 10, 12 Aug.
17-23 Aug 2019 3 -- SE Explosions. TA on 16 Aug.
23, 27-28 Aug 2019 3 -- E Explosions. TA on 23 Aug.
30-31 Aug, 03-05 Sep 2019 3 -- E, SE Explosions on 30 Aug, 3-5 Sep. TA on 30-31 Aug.
07-13 Sep 2019 3 -- S, SE, N Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 6 Sep. TA on 8 Sep.
13-15, 18 Sep 2019 2.5 -- E Explosions. TA on 15 Sep.
22-23 Sep 2019 3 -- E, NE Explosions. Ashfall in S-K.
27 Sep-04 Oct 2019 4 -- SE, E, NE Explosions.
07-08, 10 Oct 2019 2.5 -- E, NE Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 4-5 Oct. Weak TA on 8 Oct.
11-18 Oct 2019 4 -- NE Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 15 Oct. Weak TA on 12 Oct.
18, 20-21, 23 Oct 2019 3 -- N, E, SE Explosions. Weak TA on 20 Oct.
25-26, 29-30 Oct 2019 2.5 -- E, NE Explosions. Weak TA on 29 Oct.
02-06 Nov 2019 3 -- N, E, SE Explosions.
11-12, 14 Nov 2019 3 -- E, NE Explosions.
15-17, 20 Nov 2019 3 -- SE, NE Explosions.
22-23, 28 Nov 2019 2.5 -- SE, E Explosions. Ashfall in S-K on 23 Nov.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Satellite image showing the summit crater complex at Ebeko, July 2019. Monthly mosaic image for July 2019, copyright 2019 Planet Labs, Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Webcam photo of an explosion and ash plume at Ebeko on 27 July 2019. Videodata by IMGG FEB RAS and KB GS RAS (color adjusted and cropped); courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Satellite images showing an ash explosion from Ebeko on 23 September 2019. Top image is in natural color (bands 4, 3, 2). Bottom image is using "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A) to show a thermal anomaly in the northern crater visible around the rising plume. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. A satellite image of Ebeko from Sentinel-2 (LC1 natural color, bands 4, 3, 2) on 30 October 2019 showing previous ashfall deposits on the snow going in multiple directions. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data detected four low-power thermal anomalies during the second half of July, and one each in the months of June, August, and October; no activity was recorded in September or November MODVOLC thermal alerts observed only one thermal anomaly between June through November 2019.

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Planet Labs, Inc. (URL: https://www.planet.com/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash plumes with significant gas and steam emissions during January 2016-December 2017

Nevado del Ruiz is a glaciated volcano in Colombia (figure 86). It is known for the 13 November 1985 eruption that produced an ash plume and associated pyroclastic flows onto the glacier, triggering a lahar that approximately 25,000 people in the towns of Armero (46 km west) and Chinchiná (34 km east). Since 1985 activity has intermittently occurred at the Arenas crater. The eruption that began on 18 November 2014 included ash plumes dominantly dispersed to the NW of Arenas crater (BGVN 42:06). This bulletin summarizes activity during January 2016 through December 2017 and is based on reports by Servicio Geologico Colombiano and Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) notices, and satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. A satellite image of Nevado del Ruiz showing the location of the active Arenas crater. September 2019 Monthly Mosaic image copyright Planet Labs 2019.

Activity during 2016. Throughout January 2016 ash and steam plumes were observed reaching up to a few kilometers. Significant water vapor and volcanic gases, especially SO2, were detected throughout the month. Thermal anomalies were detected in the crater on the 27th and 31st. Significant water vapor and volcanic gas plumes, in particular SO2, were frequently detected by the SCAN DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) station and satellite data (figure 87). A M3.2 earthquake was felt in the area on 18 January. Similar activity continued through February with notable ash plumes up to 1 km, and a M3.6 earthquake was felt on the 6th. Ash and gas-and-steam plumes were reported throughout March with a maximum of 3.5 km on the 31st (figure 88). Significant water vapor and gas plumes continued from the Arenas crater throughout the month, and a thermal anomaly was noted on the 28th. An increase in seismicity was reported on the 29th.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. Examples of SO2 plumes from Nevado del Ruiz detected by the Aura/OMI instrument on 10, 26, and 31 January 2019. Courtesy of Goddard Space Flight Center.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Ash plumes at Nevado del Ruiz during March. Webcam images courtesy of Servicio Geologico Colombiano, various 2016 reports.

The activity continued into April with a M 3.0 earthquake felt by nearby inhabitants on the 8th, an increase in seismicity reported in the week of 12-18, and another significant increase on the 28th with earthquakes felt around Manizales. Thermal anomalies were noted during 12-18 April with the largest on the 16th. Ash plumes continued through the month as well as significant steam-and-gas plumes. Ashfall was reported in Murillo on the 29th.

The elevated activity continued through May with significant steam plumes up to 1.7 km above the crater during the week of 10-16. Thermal anomalies were reported on the 11th and 12th. Steam, gas, and ash plumes reached 2.5 km above the crater and dispersed to the W and NW. Ashfall was reported in La Florida on the 20th (figure 89) and multiple ash plumes on the 22nd reached 2.5 km and resulted in the closure of the La Nubia airport in Manizales. Ash and gas-and-steam emission continued during June (figure 90).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Ash plumes at Nevado del Ruiz on 17, 18, and 20 May 2016 with fine ash deposited on a car in La Florida, Manizales on the 20th. Webcams located in the NE Guali sector of the volcano, courtesy of Servicio Geologico Colombiano 20 May 2016 report.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Examples of gas-and-steam and ash plumes at Nevado del Ruiz during June and July 2016. Courtesy of Servicio Geologico Colombiano (7 July 2016 report).

Similar activity was reported in July with gas-and-steam and ash plumes often dispersing to the NW and W. Ashfall was reported to the NW on 16 July (figure 91). Drumbeat seismicity was detected on 13, 15, 16, and 17 July, with two hours on the 16th being the longest duration episode do far. Drumbeat seismicity was noted by SGC as indicating dome growth. Significant water vapor and gas emissions continued through August. Ash plumes were reported through the month with plumes up to 1.3 km above the crater on 28 and 2.3 km on 29. Similar activity was reported through September as well as a thermal anomaly and ash deposition apparent in satellite data (figure 92). Drumbeat seismicity was noted again on the 17th.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. The location of ashfall resulting from an explosion at Nevado del Ruiz on 16 July 2016 and a sample of the ash under a microscope. The ash is composed of lithics, plagioclase and pyroxene crystals, and minor volcanic glass. Courtesy of Servicio Geologico Colombiano (16 July 2016 report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. This Sentinel-2 thermal infrared satellite image shows elevated temperatures in the Nevado del Ruiz Arenas crater (yellow and orange) on 16 September 2016. Ash deposits are also visible to the NW of the crater. In this image blue is snow and ice. False color (urban) satellite image (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the week of 4-10 October it was noted that activity consisting of regular ash plumes had been ongoing for 22 months. Ash plumes continued with reported plumes reaching 2.5 above the crater throughout October (figure 93), accompanied by significant steam and water vapor emissions. A M 4.4 earthquake was felt nearby on the 7th. Similar activity continued through November and December 2016 with plumes consisting of gas and steam, and sometimes ash reaching 2 km above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. An ash plume rising above Nevado del Ruiz on 27 October 2016. Courtesy of Servicio Geologico Colombiano.

Activity during 2017. Significant steam and gas emissions, especially SO2, continued into early 2017. Ash plumes detected through seismicity were confirmed in webcam images and through local reports; the plumes reached a maximum height of 2.5 km above the volcano on the 6th (figure 94). Drumbeat seismicity was recorded during 3-9, and on 22 January. Inflation was detected early in the month and several thermal anomalies were noted.

Intermittent deformation continued into February. Significant steam-and-gas emissions continued with intermittent ash plumes reaching 1.5-2 km above the volcano. Thermal anomalies were noted throughout the month and there was a significant increase in seismicity during 23-26 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Ash plumes at Nevado del Ruiz on 6 January 2017. Courtesy of Servicio Geologico Colombiano.

Thermal anomalies continued to be detected through March. Ash plumes continued to be observed and recorded in seismicity and maximum heights of 2 km above the volcano were noted. Deflation continued after the intermittent inflation the previous month. On 10-11 April a period of short-duration and very low-energy drumbeat seismicity was recorded. Significant gas and steam emission continued through April with intermittent ash plumes reaching 1.5 km above the volcano. Thermal anomalies were detected early in the month.

Unrest continued through May with elevated seismicity, significant steam-and-gas emissions, and ash plumes reaching 1.7 km above the crater. Five episodes of drumbeat seismicity were recorded on 29 May and intermittent deformation continued. There were no available reports for June and July.

Variable seismicity was recorded during August and deflation was measured in the first week. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed rising to 850 m above the crater on the 3rd, and 450 m later in the month. A thermal anomaly was noted on the 14th. There were no available reports for September through December.

On 18 December 2017 the Washington VAAC issued an advisory for an ash plume to 6 km that was moving west and dispersing. The plume was described as a "thin veil of volcanic ash and gasses" that was seen in visible satellite imagery, NOAA/CIMSS, and supported by webcam imagery.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC), Diagonal 53 No. 34-53 - Bogotá D.C., Colombia (URL: https://www2.sgc.gov.co/volcanes/index.html); Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales (URL: https://www.facebook.com/ovsmanizales); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sabancaya (Peru) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sabancaya

Peru

15.787°S, 71.857°W; summit elev. 5960 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions, ash and SO2 plumes, thermal anomalies, and lava dome growth during June-November 2019

Sabancaya is an andesitic stratovolcano located in Peru. The most recent eruptive episode began in early November 2016, which is characterized by gas-and-steam and ash emissions, seismicity, and explosive events (BGVN 44:06). The ash plumes are dispersed by wind with a typical radius of 30 km, which occasionally results in ashfall. Current volcanism includes high seismicity, gas-and-steam emissions, ash and SO2 plumes, numerous thermal anomalies, and explosive events. This report updates information from June through November 2019 using information primarily from the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) and Observatorio Volcanologico del INGEMMET (Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico) (OVI-INGEMMET).

Table 5. Summary of eruptive activity at Sabancaya during June-November 2019 based on IGP weekly reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC advisories, the HIGP MODVOLC hotspot monitoring algorithm, and Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI satellite data.

Month Avg. Daily Explosions by week Max plume Heights (km above crater) Plume drift MODVOLC Alerts Min Days with SO2 over 2 DU
Jun 2019 12, 13, 16, 17 2.6-3.8 30 km S, SW, E, SE, NW, NE 15 20
Jul 2019 23, 22, 16, 13 2.3-3.7 E, SE, S, NE 7 25
Aug 2019 12, 30, 25, 26 2-4.5 30 km NW, W S, NE, SE, SW 7 25
Sep 2019 29, 32, 24, 15 1.5-2.5 S, SE, E, W, NW, SW 14 26
Oct 2019 32, 36, 44, 48, 28 2.5-3.5 S, SE, SW, W 11 25
Nov 2019 58, 50, 47, 17 2-4 W, SW, S, NE, E 13 22

Explosions, ash emissions, thermal signatures, and high concentrations of SO2 were reported each week during June-November 2019 by IGP, the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), HIGP MODVOLC, and Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI satellite data (table 5). Thermal anomalies were visible in the summit crater, even in the presence of meteoric clouds and ash plumes were occasionally visible rising from the summit in clear weather (figure 68). The maximum plume height reached 4.5 km above the crater drifting NW, W, and S the week of 29 July-4 August, according to IGP who used surveillance cameras to visually monitor the plume (figure 69). This ash plume had a radius of 30 km, which resulted in ashfall in Colca (NW) and Huambo (W). On 27 July the SO2 levels reached a high of 12,814 tons/day, according to INGEMMET. An average of 58 daily explosions occurred in early November, which is the largest average of this reporting period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery detected ash plumes, gas-and-steam emissions, and multiple thermal signatures (bright yellow-orange) in the crater at Sabancaya during June-November 2019. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. A webcam image of an ash plume rising from Sabancaya on 1 August 2019 at least 4 km above the crater. Courtesy of IGP.

Seismicity was also particularly high between August and September 2019, according to INGEMMET. On 14 August, roughly 850 earthquakes were detected. There were 280 earthquakes reported on 15 September, located 6 km NE of the crater. Both seismic events were characterized as seismic swarms. Seismicity decreased afterward but continued through the reporting period.

In February 2017, a lava dome was established inside the crater. Since then, it has been growing slowly, filling the N area of the crater and producing thermal anomalies. On 26 October 2019, OVI-INGEMMET conducted a drone overflight and captured video of the lava dome (figure 70). According to IGP, this lava dome is approximately 4.6 million cubic meters with a growth rate of 0.05 m3/s.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. Drone images of the lava dome and degassing inside the crater at Sabancaya on 26 (top) and 27 (bottom) October 2019. Courtesy of INGEMMET (Informe Ténico No A6969).

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows strong, consistent thermal anomalies occurring all throughout June through November 2019 (figure 71). In conjunction with these thermal anomalies, the October 2019 special issue report by INGEMMET showed new hotspots forming along the crater rim in July 2018 and August 2019 (figure 72).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Thermal anomalies at Sabancaya for 3 January through November 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were frequent, strong, and consistent. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Thermal hotspots on the NW section of the crater at Sabancaya using MIROVA images. These images show the progression of the formation of at least two new hotspots between February 2017 to August 2019. Courtesy of INGEMMET, Informe Técnico No A6969.

Sulfur dioxide emissions also persisted at significant levels from June through November 2019, as detected by Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI satellite data (figure 73). The satellite measurements of the SO2 emissions exceeded 2 DU (Dobson Units) at least 20 days each month during this time. These SO2 plumes sometimes occurred for multiple consecutive days (figure 74).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Consistent, large SO2 plumes from Sabancaya were seen in TROPOMI instrument satellite data throughout June-November 2019, many of which drifted in different directions based on the prevailing winds. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Persistent SO2 plumes from Sabancaya appeared daily during 13-16 September 2019 in the TROPOMI instrument satellite data. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Geologic Background. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP), Calle Badajoz N° 169 Urb. Mayorazgo IV Etapa, Ate, Lima 15012, Perú (URL: https://www.gob.pe/igp); Observatorio Volcanologico del INGEMMET (Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico), Barrio Magisterial Nro. 2 B-16 Umacollo - Yanahuara Arequipa, Peru (URL: http://ovi.ingemmet.gob.pe); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://SO2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Karangetang (Indonesia) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Karangetang

Indonesia

2.781°N, 125.407°E; summit elev. 1797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava flows, strong thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam emissions, and ash plumes during May-November 2019

Karangetang (also known as Api Siau), located on the island of Siau in the Sitaro Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, has experienced more than 40 recorded eruptions since 1675 in addition to many smaller undocumented eruptions. In early February 2019, a lava flow originated from the N crater (Kawah Dua) traveling NNW and reaching a distance over 3 km. Recent monitoring showed a lava flow from the S crater (Kawah Utama, also considered the "Main Crater") traveling toward the Kahetang and Batuawang River drainages on 15 April 2019. Gas-and-steam emissions, ash plumes, moderate seismicity, and thermal anomalies including lava flow activity define this current reporting period for May through November 2019. The primary source of information for this report comes from daily and weekly reports by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM, or the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and satellite data.

PVMBG reported that white gas-and-steam emissions were visible rising above both craters consistently between May through November 2019 (figures 30 and 31). The maximum altitude for these emissions was 400 m above the Dua Crater on 27 May and 700 m above the Main Crater on 12 June. Throughout the reporting period PVMBG noted that moderate seismicity occurred, which included both shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. A Sentinel-2 image of Karangetang showing two active craters producing gas-and-steam emissions with a small amount of ash on 7 August 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Webcam images of gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit of Karangetang on 14 (top) and 25 (bottom) October 2019. Courtesy of PVMBG via Øystein Lund Andersen.

Activity was relatively low between May and June 2019, consisting mostly of gas-and-steam emissions. On 26-27 May 2019 crater incandescence was observed above the Main Crater; white gas-and-steam emissions were rising from both craters (figures 32 and 33). At 1858 on 20 July, incandescent avalanches of material originating from the Main Crater traveled as far as 1 km W toward the Pangi and Kinali River drainages. By 22 July the incandescent material had traveled another 500 m in the same direction as well as 1 km in the direction of the Nanitu and Beha River drainages. According to a Darwin VAAC report, discreet, intermittent ash eruptions on 30 July resulted in plumes drifting W at 7.6 km altitude and SE at 3 km, as observed in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Photograph of summit crater incandescence at Karangetang on 12 May 2019. Courtesy of Dominik Derek.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Photograph of both summit crater incandescence at Karangetang on 12 May 2019 accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. Courtesy of Dominik Derek.

On 5 August 2019 a minor eruption produced an ash cloud that rose 3 km and drifted E. PVMBG reported in the weekly report for 5-11 August that an incandescent lava flow from the Main Crater was traveling W and SW on the slopes of Karangetang and producing incandescent avalanches (figure 34). During 12 August through 1 September lava continued to effuse from both the Main and Dua craters. Avalanches of material traveled as far as 1.5 km SW toward the Nanitu and Pangi River drainages, 1.4-2 km to the W of Pangi, and 1.8 km down the Sense River drainage. Lava fountaining was observed occurring up to 10 m above the summit on 14-20 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Photograph of summit crater incandescence and a lava flow from Karangetang on 7 August 2019. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

PVMBG reported that during 2-22 September lava continued to effuse from both craters, traveling SW toward the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense River drainages as far as 1.5 km. On 24 September the lava flow occasionally traveled 0.8-1.5 km toward the West Beha River drainage. The lava flow from the Main Crater continued through at least the end of November, moving SW and W as far as 1.5 km toward the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense River drainages. In late October and onwards, incandescence from both summit craters was observed at night. The lava flow often traveled as far as 1 km toward the Batang and East Beha River drainage on 12 November, the West Beha River drainage on 15, 22, 24, and 29 November, and the Batang and West Beha River drainages on 25-27 November (figure 35). On 30 November a Strombolian eruption occurred in the Main Crater accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions rising 100 m above the Main Crater and 50 m above the Dua Crater. Lava flows traveled SW and W toward the Nanitu, Sense, and Pangi River drainages as far as 1.5 km, the West Beha and Batang River drainages as far as 1 km, and occasionally the Batu Awang and Kahetang River drainages as far as 2 km. Lava fountaining was reported occurring 10-25 m above the Main Crater and 10 m above the Dua Crater on 6, 8-12, 15, 21-30 November.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Webcam image of gas-and-steam emissions rising from the summit of Karangetang accompanied by incandescence and lava flows at night on 27 November 2019. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia via Øystein Lund Andersen.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed consistent and strong thermal anomalies within 5 km of the summit craters from late July through November 2019 (figure 36). Satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 corroborated this data, showing strong thermal anomalies and lava flows originating from both craters during this same timeframe (figure 37). In addition to these lava flows, satellite imagery also captured intermittent gas-and-steam emissions from May through November (figure 38). MODVOLC thermal alerts registered 165 thermal hotspots near Karangetang's summit between May and November.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Frequent and strong thermal anomalies at Karangetang between 3 January through November 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) began in late July and were recorded within 5 km of the summit craters. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) confirmed ongoing thermal activity (bright orange) at Karangetang from July into November 2019. The lava flows traveled dominantly in the W direction from the Main Crater. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showing gas-and-steam emissions with a small amount of ash (middle and right) rising from both craters of Karangetang during May through November 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI satellite data detected multiple sulfur dioxide plumes between May and November 2019 (figure 39). These emissions occasionally exceeded 2 Dobson Units (DU) and drifted in different directions based on the dominant wind pattern.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. SO2 emissions from Karangetang (indicated by the red box) were seen in TROPOMI instrument satellite data during May through November 2019, many of which drifted in different directions based on the prevailing winds. Top left: 27 May 2019. Top middle: 26 July 2019. Top right: 17 August 2019. Bottom left: 27 September 2019. Bottom middle: 3 October 2019. Bottom right: 21 November 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Geologic Background. Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, about 125 km NNE of the NE-most point of Sulawesi island. The stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. It is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts have produced pyroclastic flows.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://SO2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: https://www.oysteinlundandersen.com); Dominik Derek (URL: https://www.facebook.com/07dominikderek/).


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New vent, lava fountaining, lava flow, and ash plumes in late September-October 2019

Ulawun is a basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano located in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea, with typical activity consisting of seismicity, gas-and-steam plumes, and ash emissions. The most recent eruption began in late June 2019 involving ash and gas-and-steam emissions, increased seismicity, and a pyroclastic flow (BGVN 44:09). This report includes volcanism from September to October 2019 with primary source information from the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

Activity remained low through 26 September 2019, mainly consisting of variable amounts of gas-and-steam emissions and low seismicity. Between 26 and 29 September RVO reported that the seismicity increased slightly and included low-level volcanic tremors and Real-Time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) values in the 200-400 range on 19, 20, and 22 September. On 30 September small volcanic earthquakes began around 1000 and continued to increase in frequency; by 1220, they were characterized as a seismic swarm. The Darwin VAAC advisory noted that an ash plume rose to 4.6-6 km altitude, drifting SW and W, based on ground reports.

On 1 October 2019 the seismicity increased, reaching RSAM values up to 10,000 units between 0130 and 0200, according to RVO. These events preceded an eruption which originated from a new vent that opened on the SW flank at 700 m elevation, about three-quarters of the way down the flank from the summit. The eruption started between 0430 and 0500 and was defined by incandescence and lava fountaining to less than 100 m. In addition to lava fountaining, light- to dark-gray ash plumes were visible rising several kilometers above the vent and drifting NW and W (figure 21). On 2 October, as the lava fountaining continued, ash-and-steam plumes rose to variable heights between 2 and 5.2 km (figures 22 and 23), resulting in ashfall to the W in Navo. Seismicity remained high, with RSAM values passing 12,000. A lava flow also emerged during the night which traveled 1-2 km NW. The main summit crater produced white gas-and-steam emissions, but no incandescence or other signs of activity were observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Photographs of incandescence and lava fountaining from Ulawun during 1-2 October 2019. A) Lava fountains along with ash plumes that rose several kilometers above the vent. B) Incandescence and lava fountaining seen from offshore. Courtesy of Christopher Lagisa.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Photographs of an ash plume rising from Ulawun on 1 October 2019. In the right photo, lava fountaining is visible. Courtesy of Christopher Lagisa.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Photograph of lava fountaining and an ash plume rising from Ulawun on 1 October 2019. Courtesy of Joe Metto, WNB Provincial Disaster Office (RVO Report 2019100101).

Ash emissions began to decrease by 3 October 2019; satellite imagery and ground observations showed an ash cloud rising to 3 km altitude and drifting N, according to the Darwin VAAC report. RVO reported that the fissure eruption on the SW flank stopped on 4 October, but gas-and-steam emissions and weak incandescence were still visible. The lava flow slowed, advancing 3-5 m/day, while declining seismicity was reflected in RSAM values fluctuating around 1,000. RVO reported that between 23 and 31 October the main summit crater continued to produce variable amounts of white gas-and-steam emissions (figure 24) and that no incandescence was observed after 5 October. Gas-and-steam emissions were also observed around the new SW vent and along the lava flow. Seismicity remained low until 27-29 October; it increased again and peaked on 30 October, reaching an RSAM value of 1,700 before dropping and fluctuating around 1,200-1,500.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Webcam photo of a gas-and-steam plume rising from Ulawun on 30 October 2019. Courtesy of the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO).

In addition to ash plumes, SO2 plumes were also detected between September and October 2019. Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI data showed SO2 plumes, some of which exceeded 2 Dobson Units (DU) drifting in different directions (figure 25). MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed strong, frequent thermal anomalies within 5 km of the summit beginning in early October 2019 and throughout the rest of the month (figure 26). Only one thermal anomaly was detected in early December.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI data showing a high concentration of SO2 plumes rising from Ulawun between late September-early October 2019. Top left: 11 September 2019. Top right: 1 October 2019. Bottom left: 2 October 2019. Bottom right: 3 October 2019. Courtesy of the NASA Space Goddard Flight Center.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Frequent and strong thermal anomalies at Ulawun for February through December 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) began in early October and continued throughout the month. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity in November was relatively low, with only a variable amount of white gas-and-steam emissions visible and low (less than 200 RSAM units) seismicity with sporadic volcanic earthquakes. Between 9-22 December, a webcam showed intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions were observed at the main crater, accompanied by some incandescence at night. Some gas-and-steam emissions were also observed rising from the new SW vent along the lava flow.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://SO2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Christopher Lagisa, West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea (URL: https://www.facebook.com/christopher.lagisa, images posted at https://www.facebook.com/christopher.lagisa/posts/730662937360239 and https://www.facebook.com/christopher.lagisa/posts/730215604071639).


Nyamuragira (DR Congo) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyamuragira

DR Congo

1.408°S, 29.2°E; summit elev. 3058 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong thermal anomalies and fumaroles within the summit crater during June-November 2019

Nyamuragira (also known as Nyamulagira) is a high-potassium basaltic shield volcano located in the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Previous volcanism consisted of the reappearance of a lava lake in the summit crater in mid-April 2018, lava emissions, and high seismicity (BGVN 44:05). Current activity includes strong thermal signatures, continued inner crater wall collapses, and continued moderate seismicity. The primary source of information for this June-November 2019 report comes from the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) and satellite data and imagery from multiple sources.

OVG reported in the July 2019 monthly that the inner crater wall collapses that were observed in May continued to occur. During this month, there was a sharp decrease in the lava lake level, and it is no longer visible. However, the report stated that lava fountaining was visible from a small cone within this crater, though its activity has also decreased since 2014. In late July, a thermal anomaly and fumaroles were observed originating from this cone (figure 85). Seismicity remained moderate throughout this reporting period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Photograph showing the small active cone within the crater of Nyamuragira in late July 2019. Fumaroles are also observed within the crater originating from the small cone. Courtesy of Sergio Maguna.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows strong, frequent thermal anomalies within 5 km of the summit between June through November (figure 86). The strength of these thermal anomalies noticeably decreases briefly in September. MODVOLC thermal alerts registered 54 thermal hotspots dominantly near the N area of the crater during June through November 2019. Satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 corroborated this data, showing strong thermal anomalies within the summit crater during this same timeframe (figure 87).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. The MIROVA graph of thermal activity (log radiative power) at Nyamuragira during 30 January through November 2019 shows strong, frequent thermal anomalies through November with a brief decrease in activity in late April-early May and early September. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) confirmed ongoing thermal activity at Nyamuragira into November 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with the adjacent steep-sided Nyiragongo to the SW. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sergio Maguna (Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sergio.maguna.9, images posted at https://www.facebook.com/sergio.maguna.9/posts/1267625096730837).


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent gas-and-steam emissions and thermal anomalies during June-November 2019

Bagana volcano is found in a remote portion of central Bougainville Island in Papua New Guinea. The most recent eruptive phase that began in early 2000 has produced ash plumes and thermal anomalies (BGVN 44:06, 50:01). Activity has remained low between January-July 2019 with rare thermal anomalies and occasional steam plumes. This reporting period updates information for June-November 2019 and includes thermal anomalies and intermittent gas-and-steam emissions. Thermal data and satellite imagery are the primary sources of information for this report.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed an increased number of thermal anomalies within 5 km from the summit beginning in late July-early August (figure 38). Two Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showed faint, roughly linear thermal anomalies, indicative of lava flows trending EW and NS on 7 July 2019 and 6 August, respectively (figure 39). Weak thermal hotspots were briefly detected in late September-early October after a short hiatus in September. No thermal anomalies were recorded in Sentinel-2 past August due to cloud cover; however, gas-and-steam emissions were visible on 7 July and in September (figures 39, 40, and 41).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Thermal anomalies near the crater summit at Bagana during February-November 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) increased in frequency and power in early August. A small cluster was detected in early October after a brief pause in activity in early September. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showing small thermal anomalies at Bagana between July-August 2019. Left: A very faint thermal anomaly and a gas-and-steam plume is seen on 7 July 2019. Right: Two small thermal anomalies are faintly seen on 6 August 2019. Both Sentinel-2 satellite images with "Atmospheric penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. A gas-and-steam plume rising from the summit of Bagana on 18 September 2019. Courtesy of Brendan McCormick Kilbride (University of Manchester).

The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) scientific team partnered with the Rabaul Volcano Observatory and the Bougainville Disaster Office to observe activity at Bagana and collect gas data using drone technology during two weeks of field work in mid-September 2019. For this field work, the major focus was to understand the composition of the volcanic gas emitted at Bagana and measure the concentration of these gases. Since Bagana is remote and difficult to climb, research about its gas emissions has been limited. The recent advancements in drone technology has allowed for new data collection at the summit of Bagana (figure 41). Most of the emissions consisted of water vapor, according to Brendan McCormick Kilbride, one of the volcanologists on this trip. During 14-19 September there was consistently a strong gas-and-steam plume from Bagana (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Degassing plumes seen from drone footage 100 m above the summit of Bagana. Top: Zoomed out view of the summit of Bagana degassing. Bottom: Closer perspective of the gases emitted from Bagana. Courtesy of Kieran Wood (University of Bristol) and the Bristol Flight Laboratory.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Photos of gas-and-steam plumes rising from Bagana between 14-19 September 2019. Courtesy of Brendan McCormick Kilbride (University of Manchester).

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Brendan McCormick Kilbride, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom (URL: https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/brendan.mccormickkilbride.html, Twitter: https://twitter.com/BrendanVolc); Kieran Wood, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1QU, United Kingdom (URL: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/engineering/people/kieran-t-wood/index.html, Twitter: https://twitter.com/DrKieranWood, video posted at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7Hx645v0eU); University of Bristol Flight Laboratory, Bristol BS8 1QU, United Kingdom (Twitter: https://twitter.com/UOBFlightLab).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes during June-early November 2019

Kerinci, located in Sumatra, Indonesia, is a highly active volcano characterized by explosive eruptions with ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions. The most recent eruptive episode began in April 2018 and included intermittent explosions with ash plumes. Volcanism continued from June-November 2019 with ongoing intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes. The primary source of information for this report comes from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), and MAGMA Indonesia.

Brown- to gray-colored ash clouds drifting in different directions were reported by PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC, and MAGMA Indonesia between June and early November 2019. Ground observations, satellite imagery, and weather models were used to monitor the plume, which ranged from 4.3 to 4.9 km altitude, or about 500-1,100 m above the summit. On 7 June 2019 at 0604 a gray ash emission rose 800 m above the summit, drifting E, according to a ground observer. An ash plume on 12 July rose to 4 km altitude and drifted SW, as determined by satellite imagery and weather models. An eruption produced a gray ash cloud on 31 July that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted NE and E, according to PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC (figure 17). Another ash cloud rose up to 4.3 km altitude on 3 August. On 2 September a possible ash plume rose to a maximum altitude of 4.9 km and drifted WSW, according to the Darwin VAAC advisory.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. A gray ash plume at Kerinci rose roughly 800 m above the summit on 31 July 2019 and drifted NE and E. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Brown ash emissions rose to 4.4 km altitude at 1253 on 6 October, drifting WSW. Similar plumes reached 4.6 km altitude twice on 30 October and moved NE, SE, and E at 0614 and WSW at 1721, based on ground observations. On 1-2 November, ground observers saw brown ash emissions rising up to 4.3 km drifting ESE. Between 3 and 5 November the brown ash plumes rose 100-500 m above the summit, according to PVMBG.

Gas emissions continued to be observed through November, as reported by PVMBG and identified in satellite imagery (figure 18). Seismicity that included volcanic earthquakes also continued between June and early November, when the frequency decreased.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showing a typical white gas-and-steam plume at Kerinci on 9 August 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite image with "Atmospheric penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Bezymianny (Russia) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bezymianny

Russia

55.972°N, 160.595°E; summit elev. 2882 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava dome growth, ongoing thermal anomalies, moderate gas-steam emissions, June-November 2019

The long-term activity at Bezymianny has been dominated by almost continuous thermal anomalies, moderate gas-steam emissions, dome growth, lava flows, and an occasional ash explosion (BGVN 44:06). The volcano is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT. Throughout the reporting period of June to November 2019, the Aviation Colour Code remained Yellow (second lowest of four levels).

According to KVERT weekly reports, lava dome growth continued in June through mid-July 2019. Thereafter the reports did not mention dome growth, but indicated that moderate gas-and-steam emissions (figure 32) continued through November. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, based on analysis of MODIS data, detected hotspots within 5 km of the summit almost every day. KVERT also reported a thermal anomaly over the volcano almost daily, except when it was obscured by clouds. Infrared satellite imagery often showed thermal anomalies generated by lava flows or dome growth (figure 33).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Photo of Bezymianny showing fumarolic activity on 4 July 2019. Photo by O. Girina (IVS FEB RAS, KVERT); courtesy of KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Typical infrared satellite images of Bezymianny showing thermal anomalies in the summit crater, including a lava flow to the WNW. Top: 21 August 2019 with SWIR filter (bands 12, 8A, 4). Bottom: 17 September 2019 with Atmospheric Penetration filter (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny had been considered extinct. The modern volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral edifice built about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Mayon (Philippines) — November 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Mayon

Philippines

13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2462 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Gas-and-steam plumes and summit incandescence during May-October 2019

Mayon, located in the Philippines, is a highly active stratovolcano with recorded historical eruptions dating back to 1616. The most recent eruptive episode began in early January 2018 that consisted of phreatic explosions, steam-and-ash plumes, lava fountaining, and pyroclastic flows (BGVN 43:04). The previous report noted small but distinct thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam plumes, and slight inflation (BGVN 44:05) that continued to occur from May into mid-October 2019. This report includes information based on daily bulletins from the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and Sentinel-2 satellite imagery.

Between May and October 2019, white gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 800 m on 17 May. PHIVOLCS reported that faint summit incandescence was frequently observed at night from May-July and Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showed weaker thermal anomalies in September and October (figure 49); the last anomaly was identified on 12 October. Average SO2 emissions as measured by PHIVOLCS generally varied between 469-774 tons/day; the high value of the period was on 25 July, with 1,171 tons/day. Small SO2 plumes were detected by the TROPOMI satellite instrument a few times during May-September 2019 (figure 50).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery of Mayon between May-October 2019. Small thermal anomalies were recorded in satellite imagery from the summit and some white gas-and-steam plumes are visible. Top left: 30 May 2019. Top right: 9 June 2019. Bottom left: 22 September 2019. Bottom right: 12 October 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite images with "Atmospheric penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Small SO2 plumes rising from Mayon during May-September 2019 recorded in DU (Dobson Units). Top left: 28 May 2019. Top right: 26 July 2019. Bottom left: 16 August 2019. Bottom right: 23 September 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Continuous GPS data has shown slight inflation since June 2018, corroborated by precise leveling data taken on 9-17 April, 16-25 July, and 23-30 October 2019. Elevated seismicity and occasional rockfall events were detected by the seismic monitoring network from PHIVOLCS from May to July; recorded activity decreased in August. Activity reported by PHIVOLCS in September-October 2019 consisted of frequent gas-and-steam emissions, two volcanic earthquakes, and no summit incandescence.

Geologic Background. Beautifully symmetrical Mayon, which rises above the Albay Gulf NW of Legazpi City, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple edifice has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. A violent eruption in 1814 killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns.

Information Contacts: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Department of Science and Technology, University of the Philippines Campus, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines (URL: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://SO2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Merapi (Indonesia) — October 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Low-volume dome growth continues during April-September 2019 with rockfalls and small block-and-ash flows

Merapi is an active volcano north of the city of Yogyakarta (figure 79) that has a recent history of dome growth and collapse, resulting in block-and-ash flows that killed over 400 in 2010, while an estimated 10,000-20,000 lives were saved by evacuations. The edifice contains an active dome at the summit, above the Gendol drainage down the SE flank (figure 80). The current eruption episode began in May 2018 and dome growth was observed from 11 August 2018-onwards. This Bulletin summarizes activity during April through September 2019 and is based on information from Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG, the Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology, a branch of PVMBG), Sutopo of Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), MAGMA Indonesia, along with observations by Øystein Lund Andersen and Brett Carr of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Merapi volcano is located north of Yogyakarta in Central Java. Photo courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. A view of the Gendol drainage where avalanches and block-and-ash flows are channeled from the active Merapi lava dome. The Gendol drainage is approximately 400 m wide at the summit. Courtesy of Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

At the beginning of April the rate of dome growth was relatively low, with little morphological change since January, but the overall activity of Merapi was considered high. Magma extrusion above the upper Gendol drainage resulted in rockfalls and block-and-ash flows out to 1.5 km from the dome, which were incandescent and visible at night. Five block-and-ash flows were recorded on 24 April, reaching as far as 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage. The volume of the dome was calculated to be 466,000 m3 on 9 April, a slight decrease from the previous week. Weak gas plumes reached a maximum of 500 m above the dome throughout April.

Six block-and-ash flows were generated on 5 May, lasting up to 77 seconds. Throughout May there were no significant changes to the dome morphology but the volume had decreased to 458,000 by 4 May according to drome imagery analysis. Lava extrusion continued above the Gendol drainage, producing rockfalls and small block-and-ash flows out to 1.2 km (figure 81). Gas plumes were observed to reach 400 m above the top of the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. An avalanche from the Merapi summit dome on 17 May 2019. The incandescent blocks traveled down to 850 m away from the dome. Courtesy of Sutopo, BNPB.

There were a total of 72 avalanches and block-and-ash flows from 29 January to 1 June, with an average distance of 1 km and a maximum of 2 km down the Gendol drainage. Photographs taken by Øystein Lund Andersen show the morphological change to the lava dome due to the collapse of rock and extruding lava down the Gendol drainage (figures 82 and 83). Block-and-ash flows were recorded on 17 and 20 June to a distance of 1.2 km, and a webcam image showed an incandescent flow on 26 June (figure 84). Throughout June gas plumes reached a maximum of 250 m above the top of the crater

Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. The development of the Merapi summit dome from 2 June 2018 to 17 June 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Photos taken of the Merapi summit lava dome in June 2019. Top: This nighttime time-lapse photograph shows incandescence at the south-facing side of the dome on the 16 June. Middle: A closeup of a small rockfall from the dome on 17 June. Bottom: A gas plume accompanying a small rockfall on 17 June. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Blocks from an incandescent rockfall off the Merapi dome reached out to 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 26 June 2019. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Analysis of drone images taken on 4 July gave an updated dome volume of 475,000 m3, a slight increase but with little change in the morphology (figure 85). Block-and-ash flows traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage on 1 July, 1 km on the 13th, and 1.1 km on the 14th, some of which were seen at night as incandescent blocks fell from the dome (figure 86). During the week of 19-25 July there were four recorded block-and-ash flows reaching 1.1 km, and flows traveled out to around 1 km on the 24th, 27th, and 31st. The morphology of the dome continued to be relatively stable due to the extruding lava falling into the Gendol drainage. Gas plumes reached 300 m above the top of the crater during July.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. The Merapi dome on 30 July 2019 producing a weak plume. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Incandescent rocks from the hot lava dome at the summit of Merapi form rockfalls down the Gendol drainage on 14 July 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

During the week of 5-11 August the dome volume was calculated to be 461,000 m3, a slight decrease from the week before with little morphological changes due to the continued lava extrusion collapsing into the Gendol drainage. There were five block-and-ash flows reaching a maximum of 1.2 km during 2-8 August. Two flows were observed on the 13th and 14th reaching 950 m, out to 1.9 km on the 20th and 22nd, and to 550 m on the 24th. There were 16 observed flows that reached 500-1,000 m on 25-27 August, with an additional flow out to 2 km at 1807 on the 27th (figure 87). Gas plumes reached a maximum of 350 m through the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. An incandescent rockfall from the Merapi dome that reached 2 km down the Gendol drainage on 27 August 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Brett Carr was conducting field work at Merapi during 12-26 September. During this time the lava extrusion was low (below 1 m3 per second). He observed small rockfalls with blocks a couple of meters in size, traveling about 50-200 m down the drainage every hour or so, producing small plumes as they descended and resulting in incandescence on the dome at night. Small dome collapse events produced block-and-ash flows down the drainage once or twice per day (figure 88) and slightly larger flows just over 1 km long a couple of times per week.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. A rockfall on the Merapi dome, towards the Gendol drainage at 0551 on 20 September 2019. Courtesy of Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

The dome volume was 468,000 m3 by 19 September, a slight increase from the previous calculation but again with little morphological change. Two block-and-ash flows were observed out to 600 m on 9 September and seven occurred on the 9th out to 500-1,100 m. Two occurred on the 14th down to 750-900 m, three occurred on 17, 20, and 21 September to a maximum distance of 1.2 km, and three more out to 1.5 km through the 26th. A VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) was issued on the 22nd due to a small explosion producing an ash plume up to approximately 3.8 km altitude (about 800 m above the summit) and minor ashfall to 15 km SW. This was followed by a block-and-ash flow reaching as far as 1.2 km and lasting for 125 seconds (figure 89). Preceding the explosion there was an increase in temperature at several locations on the dome. Weak gas plumes were observed up to 100 m above the crater throughout the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. An explosion at Merapi on 22 September 2019 was followed by a block-and-ash flow that reached 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology (URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: @BPPTKG); Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/BNPB_Indonesia); Øystein Lund Andersen? (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN); Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY, USA (URL: https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/user/bcarr).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 29, Number 02 (February 2004)

Managing Editor: Edward Venzke

Erta Ale (Ethiopia)

February 2004 expedition finds molten-surfaced lava lake nearly gone

Kilauea (United States)

Activity through April 2004 focuses in upper flow field (maps and diagrams)

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

MODIS thermal alerts in April 2003, and January 2004

Lengai, Ol Doinyo (Tanzania)

During February 2004, lavas still escape crater; temperature measurements

Llaima (Chile)

Extreme glacial crevassing and melting; April 2003 ash emissions

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

One minor eruption but otherwise low activity during February 2004

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

1-17 February 2004-ash falls 30 km to the E

Ruang (Indonesia)

Eruption on 25 September 2002 is the largest in Indonesia in many years

Ruapehu (New Zealand)

Strategy, prediction, and management of crater-lake overflow and powerful lahar

Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom)

Ash to 7 km altitude on 3 March 2004; pyroclastic flows reached the sea

Stromboli (Italy)

After 10 February 2004, explosions at upper limit of that typically seen

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Tabulation of aviation reports issued during 2000-mid-2003

Witori (Papua New Guinea)

Two explosions on 24 February 2004, otherwise quiet during that month



Erta Ale (Ethiopia) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Erta Ale

Ethiopia

13.6°N, 40.67°E; summit elev. 613 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


February 2004 expedition finds molten-surfaced lava lake nearly gone

In February 2004 an expedition led by German scientists visited Erta Ale. Afterwards, an overflight completed the survey of volcanic activity. Of significance was the discovery that an earlier lava lake had largely disappeared. Information from their report follows.

German scientists were at Erta Ale during 9-13 February 2004. They explored areas around the S crater of the volcano, which for the past several years has contained an active lava lake (see BGVN 28:04 and 26:12). The S crater retained only a very small fraction of the former lava lake. When visited it stood ~ 15 m in diameter, located roughly in the center of the old lake. Around the small lake were many active gas vents, and there was a hornito, about 2 m tall, on the SE side. Behind its ~ 1.5-m-high walls, the lake's lava changed levels and occasional lava fountains rose to ~ 10 m high.

On 12 February the expedition team descended to the second terrace (~90 m below the rim) of the S crater, to the surface of the former lake, and approached the small elevated lake. Samples of newly ejected lava were collected, and some were given to Gezahegn Yirgu at the University of Addis Ababa for analysis. Samples retained by the expedition team showed white crystals, approximately 1-2 mm in size, embedded in black material. On the evening of 12 February the team witnessed an overflow of the little lake, flooding the NW half of the second terrace. Parts of the western lake wall eventually collapsed, causing a lava flood wave as well as more violent fountaining (up to 20 m). This event lasted approximately 2 hours.

The entire crater was fogged by fumaroles, which were mainly active in the SE corner of the first terrace (~ 50 m below the rim). Gas masks were necessary inside the crater. From the smell and (blueish) color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2.

No earthquakes were felt during the visit.

On 21 February a low overflight was made across the volcano. There were no more signs of a lava lake, and only three hornitos were active. Although the flight was made during the day, the glow allowed the hornitos to be visible. Upon return, Chris Heinlein noted that he found photos on the web by Luigi Cantamessa showing that during 15-17 November 2003 the lava lake was also largely gone.

Geologic Background. Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide edifice rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the N flank.

Information Contacts: Carsten Peter, Meilenbergerstr. 1, D-82057 Icking-Dorfen, Germany; Chris Heinlein, Kreuzelbergstr. 62, 76189 Karlsruhe, Germany; Arne Kaiser, Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraβe 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany; Luigi Cantamessa, Geó-Découverte, 12-14 rue de Cendrier, CH-1201 Geneva, Switzerland (URL: http://geo-decouverte.ch/); Gezahegn Yirgu, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (URL: http://www.aau.edu.et/natural-sciences/geology/).


Kilauea (United States) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Activity through April 2004 focuses in upper flow field (maps and diagrams)

Kilauea continued to be active at Pu`u `O`o during December 2003 through early March 2004. Figure 161 shows simplified maps and a diagrammatic cross-section on the Island of Hawaii, emphasizing local geography, and known and inferred conditions at Kilauea. During the reporting interval observers noted incandescence and surface lava flows at Kilauea's upper flow field. In general, surface lava flows were not seen on the coastal flat or Pulama pali. Various vents within Pu`u `O`o were active, and new lava flows covered parts of the crater floor. Seismicity at Kilauea has generally included a few small earthquakes recorded at the volcano's summit, along with steady weak tremor. Tremor occurred continuously at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 161. A map and cross-sectional diagram illustrating the island of Hawaii (the 'Big Island,' the largest and southernmost in the Hawaiian chain) showing selected volcanological features and some local geography. The inset shows how the island of Hawaii consists of five volcanoes (old to young): Kohala, Hualalai, Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, and Kilauea. The larger map emphasizes Kilauea's features. Kilauea is cut by two rift zones, the SW and E rift zones. The east rift zone extends 55 km from the summit caldera to the eastern tip of the Island of Hawaii. The E rift zone contains a string of craters, including Pu`u `O`o. The cross-sectional diagram displays a simplified model of Kilauea's internal structure. Note the location of vents, at Pu`u `O`o and elsewhere, along the SW rift zone. The diagram also shows a lava tube running from Pu`u `O`o to the sea. The map and diagram both omit the details of recent eruptive events; for that, see later figures. Courtesy of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey.

During 0550 to 0830 on 18 January 2004, a large period of tilt occurred at Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o cone, amounting to 18.1 microradians of net deflation. During this period a fissure opened at the SE base of Pu`u `O`o, trending approximately radial to the cone. Lava was emitted from the fissure and from three to four vents nearby. The initial flow reached about 1.5 km S of the cone. The S side of Pu`u `O`o was cut by many new fractures. The longest fracture constituted the N boundary of a shallow graben (a linear trough bounded by faults) that was ~ 75 m long and up to 1 m deep. Surface lava flows were emitted from the E end of the graben, at the base of Pu`u `O`o. The area S of Pu`u `O`o cone appeared to be quite unstable, so Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) scientists warned that no one should venture into the area. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit during 15-20 January was at low levels, while tremor at Pu`u `O`o was continuous and at moderate levels. The tremor picked up during the formation of the graben on 18 January. As of 20 January tilt continued to steadily decline following the 18 January deflation event.

On 22 January lava was emitted from the vent formed on 19 January. The vent and lava flow S of Pu`u `O`o cone were named MLK in honor of the activity that began on the American civil rights leader M.L. King Jr.'s birthday (19 January; see figures 162 and 163).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 162. A sketch map showing Kilauea's lava flows erupted during 1983-23 January 2004 activity of Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha. Lava flows began erupting from new MLK vent at the base of Pu`u `O`o (star) on 18 January 2004. Stars indicate centers of recently active, or still active, rootless shields in Mother's Day flow. New shields form often and not all shields appear on this map. Courtesy of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 163. Sketch map of Pu`u `O`o region through 26 January 2004 identifying numerous vents, groups of lava flows, and other features referred to in this and previous issues of the Bulletin. Note the names assigned to intra-crater vents in the oval-shaped interior of Pu`u `O`o cone (stars 1-7) and the various rootless shields farther to the W. Courtesy of Hawaii Volcano Observatory, U. S. Geological Survey.

A term that has come into common use at Kilauea is "rootless shield." Local geologists define this as a pile of lava flows built over a lava tube rather than over a conduit feeding magma from within the Earth. Rootless shields along the tube system commonly have flat tops containing shallow lava ponds. In the reporting interval, there were also surface lava flows at the W side of the rootless shield called Amalgamated Bend, a feature located SW of Pu`u `O`o (figure 6). By 26 January there were no surface lava flows at the MLK vent, and incandescence was only visible at the S part of the rootless shield complex. On 23 January moderate-to-strong tremor stopped beneath Kilauea's caldera and lessened at Pu`u `O`o. On 26 January deflation that began on 18 January ended at Pu`u `O`o after reaching 24.7 microradians. This was probably the largest deflation event since early 1997.

During 29 January to 1 February mild volcanic activity occurred at Kilauea, with incandescence visible at vents in Pu`u `O`o's crater and small surface flows on the central or southern part of the rootless shield complex. Starting on 18 January, when the MLK vent formed, the distance across the summit caldera decreased significantly, ending a period of increasing extension rate since the Mother's Day event in May 2002. During the report period, weak tremor occurred at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained moderate. During much of February 2004 and into early March, lava flows and incandescence were sometimes visible in Pu`u `O`o's crater and at the rootless shield complex (an area ~ 0.5 km SW of Pu`u `O`o). Weak background tremor occurred at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-low levels. Small deflation and inflation events occurred at the summit and at Pu`u `O`o.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), U.S. Geological Survey, PO Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718, USA (URL: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/).


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


MODIS thermal alerts in April 2003, and January 2004

Langila was last reported in BGVN 28:03, following a large ash-bearing explosion on 18 January 2003. MODIS thermal alerts were subsequently recorded on 9 April and 20, 23, 25, and 27 January 2004. One daylight alert was received and omitted (22 September 2003). Daylight alerts posted by the current algorithm are considered less reliable. No corroborative reports of activity have been received from the Rabaul Volcano Observatory or the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: Rob Wright, Luke Flynn, and Eric Pilger, MODIS Thermal Alert System, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa (URL: http://modis.hgip.hawaii.edu/).


Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Tanzania

2.764°S, 35.914°E; summit elev. 2962 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


During February 2004, lavas still escape crater; temperature measurements

Activity at Ol Doinyo Lengai has continued intermittently since October 2002 (BGVN 27:10). (According to Fred Belton, in that same month, October 2002, Paramount Pictures used the crater to shoot footage for the film "Tomb Raiders II.").

This summary report for 2003 is based on observations made by Joerg Keller, Jurgis Klaudius, Fred Belton, and Christoph Weber, as well as information collected by Celia Nyamweru from visits to the area. Christoph Weber most recently visited Lengai in February 2004, when he collected GPS data for a new, precise crater map (figure 78). He also took temperature measurements of fumaroles and lava flows (see tables 5 and 6), and gathered lava samples to be given to research departments.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. GPS-aided sketch map of the crater at Ol Doinyo Lengai made on 14 February 2004. Note the lava flow paths over the crater's margin on onto the flanks ("overflows") that have started in the past several years. Subsequent figures (photos) help clarify the shapes and sizes of hornitos and other features. Naming conventions are complicated by the crater's rapidly changing landscape, including such processes at hornitos as collapse, clustering, and overlap. For example, hornito T48, which was described as having collapsed in July 2000, lies on the N margin of the hornito labeled as T58B. The lava ponds seen by Hloben in January 2001 are not shown, although some of their locations may coincide with later features. For detailed comparison of crater evolution and naming conventions, consult previous maps (eg., BGVN 27:10). Courtesy of Christoph Weber, Volcano Expeditions International and Volcano Hazards Documentation and Logistic Research.

Table 5. Lava temperature measured at Ol Doinyo Lengai by a digital thermometer (TM 914C with a stab feeler, standard K-Type). The instrument was used in the 0-1200° Celsius mode. Calibration was made using the delta-T method, where temperature values are +/- 6°C in the 0-750°C range associated with at least four replicate measurements at one spot. Courtesy of Christoph Weber.

Date Location Temperature (°C)
28 Aug 1999 T40 lava lake 529
01 Sep 1999 Pahoehoe flow in a tube near T40 519
01 Sep 1999 Aa flow still in motion on flat terrain (60 cm thick) 516
03 Oct 2000 Pahoehoe flow in a tube near T49B 507
03 Oct 2000 Aa flow still in slow motion on flat terrain (25 cm thick) 496
11 Feb 2004 Pahoehoe flow in a tube near T49G 588
12 Feb 2004 Pahoehoe flow in a tube near T49B 579
13 Feb 2004 Aa flow immobile and on flat terrain (15 cm thick) 490

Table 6. Fumarole temperatures measured at cracks in the crater floor of Ol Doinyo Lengai, using the above-described digital thermometer. Courtesy of Christoph Weber.

Date Location Temperature (°C)
28 Aug 1999 F1 70
28 Aug 1999 Near T49 82
03 Oct 2000 Near T49C 75
03 Oct 2000 F1 69
20 Oct 2002 The hottest cracks in the crater floor 124
20 Oct 2002 F1 78
30 Jun 2003 F1 86
30 Jun 2003 Near T49C 76
12 Feb 2004 F1 88

Summary of 2003 activity. During the first half of 2003, two new hornitos appeared in the center of the active crater at Ol Doinyo Lengai at the T49 and T58B (T48) locations (see figure 78 and caption). A huge lava pond appeared at these locations and caused several lava flows in all directions. According to Burra Gadiye, a local Lengai observer, by mid-June unusually dramatic activity started at both new hornitos. An expedition led by Frederick Belton in August 2003 reported that strong degassing and rhythmic explosive eruptions threw lapilli, ash, and lava spatter to 100 m above the hornito. Those eruptions, best described as Strombolian, continued until January 2004. They were accompanied by several lava flows and built up the comparatively tall strato-type hornitos at the T49-T56B locations and at the T48-T48B-T58B locations. The summit of T48B stood just above the former T44 hornito, but T44 itself was no longer visible.

Observations during February 2004. An expedition team including Christoph Weber and others visited Lengai for five days, 10-14 February 2004 (figures 79, 80, and 81). The team used GPS to conclude that the summit of the tallest hornito, located in the center area of the active crater at Ol Doinyo Lengai (T49 or T56B location), was at approximately 2,886 m elevation, standing about 33 m above the surrounding crater floor to the N. While this hornito was no longer active, T48B (T58B) contained a lava lake deep inside, which was clearly indicated by noise and tremor. Observers in February noted effusive and lava lake activity. This occurred at the old T49 eruption center, also indicated by the activity of T49B during observation and an active new vent (numbered T49G by Weber, figure 81) at the N flank of T49 (T56B), about half way up from its base to the N side.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Ol Doinyo Lengai as seen in February 2004 from its summit, looking towards the actively erupting N crater. Courtesy Christoph Weber.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. View of the tallest hornito (T56B) at Ol Doinyo Lengai in February 2004. T56B sits in the center of the active (N) crater. The hornito's summit was at 2,886 m elevation. Lava flows are visible in the foreground. Courtesy Christoph Weber.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. View of Ol Doinyo Lengai looking towards the W, facing the lava lake at T49G and the active peak at T49B. Courtesy Christoph Weber.

This new activity probably caused two collapses (which left depressions) in the N flank of T49 (T56B), seen since January 2004. The T49G vent, located at the upper collapse, had a steady degassing lava lake with many overflows recorded during the February visit. Lava penetrated the lower collapse at T49 and lava flows reached as far as the NW overflow. On 12 and 13 February the T49B vent spattered lava for hours, feeding lava flows to the W (to the vicinity of T51), and finally escaping into a lava tube system. The lava temperature very close to the lava lake was measured at 588°C. Immobile aa lava flows on flat terrain were measured between 480°C and 500°C (table 5).

On 7 February team members Christoph Weber and R. Albiez were staying at the N slope of the neighboring Karimassi volcano and heard a paroxysm at T48B (T58B) lasting 30 seconds. During the visit on 10 February evidence of this paroxysm included fresh lava spatter and bombs cast around T58B for a radius of ~ 100 m.

Evacuation project at Ol Doinyo Lengai. Contributors to this report belong to a group committed to creating and funding evacuation plans. That group is called Volcano Hazards Documentation and Logistic Research (see Information Contacts). The group is working with the local Masaii and authorities on preparations in case of a dangerous eruption.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent stratovolcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra ejections and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

Information Contacts: Christoph Weber, Volcano Expeditions International, Muehlweg 11, 74199 Untergruppenbach, Germany (URL: http://www.v-e-i.de); Celia Nyamweru, Department of Anthropology, St. Lawrence University, Canton NY 13617 USA (URL: http://blogs.stlawu.edu/lengai/); Jurgis Klaudius, IMPG, Albert-Ludwig-University Freiburg, Albertstrasse 23b, 79104 Freiburg, Germany; Frederick Belton, 3555 Philsdale Ave., Memphis, TN 38111 USA (URL: http://oldoinyolengai.pbworks.com/); Volcano Hazards Documentation and Logistic Research, VHDL; Germany, Muehlweg 11, 74199 Untergruppenbach (URL: http://www.v-e-i.de/vhdl/).


Llaima (Chile) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Llaima

Chile

38.692°S, 71.729°W; summit elev. 3125 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Extreme glacial crevassing and melting; April 2003 ash emissions

During late 2002 and early 2003 Chilean scientists at Llaima documented increases in seismicity, fumarolic output, a minor eruption, and pronounced glacial disruption. For example, on 8 January 2003 they found that the ice and snow formerly capping the N and S craters had completely melted. Larger eruptions began in April 2003, depositing pyroclastic material, dispersing numerous ballistic blocks, and creating substantial plumes.

Although this report covers the time interval from January 2002 through most of April 2003, the concern then was that Llaima might erupt with the vigor seen in 1994 (BGVN 19:04 and 19:05). However, during the 2002-03 reporting interval eruptions remained comparatively modest.

Ice covered, passively degassing. On 26 September and 30 October 2002, scientists from Chile's Volcanic Risk Program and the Volcanologic Observatory of the South Andes (OVDAS) flew over Llaima in response to steady increases in seismicity and fumarolic activity since the end of June 2002. On the 26 September flight they viewed the summit with its N (main) crater, and Pichillaima, the smaller SE-flank cone and its crater. They found only a weak steam plume rising gently from the main crater and attaining little additional height. This was in contrast to typical previous behavior, which consisted of puffs that rose several hundred meters before dissipating.

The 26 September 2002 aerial observations found the internal walls of the main crater draped in ice and snow. Pichillaima lay beneath a cover of clean ice and snow, and its crater emitted only a small gas plume. The overall scene was of quiet, with minor degassing amid frigid conditions.

Views of the main crater rim on 30 October 2002 indicated minor ash on the snow, an irregular, figure-eight-shaped hole emitting gases, and a much larger and optically denser steam plume than on 26 September. Llaima's cover of ice and snow was more complete than noted in October 1998. Thus, by comparison, in late 2002 visible signs of thermal activity had diminished significantly. In contrast to what was typically seen, the crater's ice-covered internal walls lacked escaping gases. Except for seismicity, the ice-bound Llaima seemed stable.

Seismically restless. Despite the lack of visible volcanism or thermal activity, the seismicity in September 2002 was notably greater than in January 2002 (table 2). The frequency of tremor increased from 0.9 Hz in January 2002 (a typical value in times of relative quiet) to 1.2 Hz in September 2002. In describing April 2003 tremor amplitude the OVDAS reports stated that it was about "5-fold larger" than at base level.

Table 2. Seismic activity at Llaima summarized as RSAM (Real-time seismic amplitude) values and principal tremor frequencies. In times of relative quiet, baseline values at Llaima are ~ 20 RSAM units and 0.9 Hz. These data were taken from reports by OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN (which omitted some time intervals).

Date Seismicity (RSAM units) Tremor frequency (Hz)
Jan 2002 28 0.9
Jun 2002 20 --
Sep 2002 57 1.2
Dec 2002 99 1.2 (during 18-20 Dec)
Mid-Jan 2003 93 --
Late Jan 2003 60 --
Apr 2003 92 1-2.2
18-19 Apr 2003 98 --

In September 2002, seismic instruments included two permanent stations (LLAI and MELI) located respectively on Llaima's S flank and S foot. In December 2002, there were two portable seismic receivers placed on the E flank at Lago Verde, which also recorded unrest. The seismicity continued to increase from December 2002 to mid-January 2003 (from ~70 to ~100 RSAM units). After that, it diminished and stabilized for about two months.

Sudden changes. A flight on 8 January 2003 led OVDAS to see remarkable changes since the late 2003 observations (figure 11). First, the dense fumarole emitted from the main crater was much stronger than the one seen 26 September 2002 (figure 11, top left). Second, the ice and snow had completely melted from main crater's internal walls. Third, complete melting of ice and snow had left exposed rock at both the summit and Pichillaima (figure 11, lower right). Fourth, numerous new crevasses had appeared in the cone's glaciers, particularly on the E flank. Down all flanks of the volcano, the 8 January observers saw ice falls, snow avalanches, ice detachments, and rockfalls.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Contrasting views of Llaima's summit crater and Pichillaima as seen on 26 September 2002 (left, top and bottom, respectively) compared to 8 January 2003 (right, top and bottom, respectively). The scenes highlight differing conditions, particularly the melting of ice and snow. On 26 September 2002 snow covered most of the edifice. On 8 January 2003 there was an absence of significant ice and snow from parts of the crater walls, rim, and S flanks, and there were increased emissions of volcanic gases. Courtesy of OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN.

Although the melting came at the time of the annual thaw, the situation on the volcano indicated that processes such as local heating accelerated the melting. Snow had fallen in early October 2002. The absence of ice and snow cover on both the shaded and unshaded sides of Llaima was cited as evidence indicating elevated rock temperature. Observers saw the melting and also noted a halt to any new accumulation of ice and snow deposits. The melting was attributed to magma at depth in the conduit, and considerable heat emerging at the locations where the ice melted.

The report issued 20 January 2003 noted that field work on Llaima's W side (Cherquenco-El Salto) had disclosed deep new crevasses in the glacial ice reaching 1.5 km long. These were affiliated with avalanching from near the main cone's summit to the cone's NW foot (~ 3 km long by 0.5 km wide). Observers also noticed continued signs of thawing, including the appearance of small fumaroles, which they again attributed to the volcano warming.

The next available reports, from the period 9-11 April, came from eye-witnesses. Rodrigo Marín of Conguillío national park, noted "an increase of fumarole activity in the main crater between 9 and 10 April, which was accompanied by ash emission." In addition, from the N slope (Captrén) people heard underground noises.

At 1330 on 10 April a teacher at Los Andes de Melipeuco elementary school noted three ash explosions that reached ~ 500 m above the main crater and dispersed NE. Several others observers noted ash-bearing emissions from the main crater, including one at 1340 and another at 1350. A park ranger noted that around 2100-2200 on 10 April strong and continuous explosions awoke him and ash began to fall on him in the N-slope sector of Captrén. Later, the explosions became more sporadic, and he heard sounds similar to those made by the motion of heavy machinery. This continued into the early morning of 11 April.

The director of the above-mentioned school reported to OVDAS that on 11 April at 0915 he saw "...continuing ash emission from the main crater." Finally, at 1100 on 11 April, OVDAS observatory (Cerro ñielol-Temuco) staff observed a vertical column, mainly of volcanic gases, which rose to about 600-700 m above the crater rim. This fed a large, horizontal, lenticular cloud ~ 30 km in diameter, the top of which rose to about 3,900 m altitude.

An 11 April helicopter flight disclosed a thin layer of pyroclastic material spread widely across the glaciers on the NE, E, SE, and SW flanks, visible out to distances of ~ 4 km. Impact craters in the ice testified to numerous bouncing and rolling projectiles. Scientists on that flight noted vigorous fumarolic activity and dense clouds with colors and odors indicating the presence of SO2 and HCl. At multiple spots, small fumaroles had sprouted from the crater walls. The crater floor contained a 50-m-diameter vent emitting gases, but no lava flows had emerged. Although the 9-11-April eruptions were modest, they prompted Llaima's hazard status to rise from Green to Yellow.

Figure 12 portrays further melting and exposure of underlying rock at both the summit (top) and Pichillaima (bottom) on 11 April. When photographed, the ice and snow at Pichillaima had receded by 1.0-1.5 km from its topographic high. Ice margins appeared sub-vertical and engulfed circular melt areas.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Two vistas of Llaima on 11 April 2003 documenting the rapid ice recession and melting around the main crater and Pichillaima. (A) Rim and flanks of the summit and associated main crater standing with large areas ice free. (B) Pichillaima, nearly ice free and encircled by thick ice at the limit of ice melting. Courtesy of OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN.

Other amazing photos taken 11 April 2003 revealed dramatic changes in glaciers and snow fields (figure 13). Many regions of the ice appeared to be in motion and undergoing acute mechanical failure. Numerous profound crevasses had emerged, including sets of broadly transverse, arcuate crevasses trending from glacial margins and extending well into their axial areas.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Four views of Llaima from helicopter, taken on 11 April 2003 showing newly exposed rock surfaces, newly created ice-margins, and unstable, rapidly breaking glaciers. Llaima's comparatively temperate late-2002 to early-2003 eruptive phase correlated with these remarkable changes in its alpine glaciers. Courtesy of OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN.

On 12-13 April 2003 the main crater issued intense pulsing fumarolic degassing at 1- to 3-minute intervals. Odors and celeste color were again indicative of SO2 and HCl components; such emissions were noted until 1500 on 13 April. Other processes on those days included mass wasting, sometimes with associated dust, apparent vibrations at the summit, and ballistic discharges from the main crater. At 1310 on 13 April, expulsions intensified and occurred at 1 minute intervals. Plumes blew E.

Continued observations resulted in the recommendation to maintain the Yellow status at least through 16 April as eruptions began to contain significant tephra. Volcanologists expressed concern that the volcano's glacial ice-cover could undergo further melting, which might lead to large and sudden outbursts of water (glacier bursts) traveling down local drainages.

On 16 April at 1453 OVDAS personnel in the Lago Verde area confirmed gaseous emissions were continuing to escape from the crater. They reported that at 1535 these emissions intensified and reached 200 m above the crater rim, with the plume blowing SE and being visible for ~ 8 km. They noted that at 1537 gaseous emissions escaped at Pichillaima. On the N (Captrén) side of the mountain at 1704 the observers saw gray-colored fumaroles. During 1130-1355 on 17 April from a point near the Lago Verde they perceived SO2 and HCl; they witnessed gas emissions to the NE reaching 200 m above the crater rim and spawning a plume visible for ~ 10 km.

The 20 and 23 April 2003 OVDAS reports discussed poor visibility but the permanent stations indicated high-amplitude tremor and considerable seismicity (eg., 98 RSAM units on 18 and 19 April). OVDAS staff interpreted these signals as due to fluids and gases moving in internal conduits. They also pointed out the absence of high- and low-frequency earthquake swarms, signals that generally precede emissions of ash. Small swarms of long-period earthquakes began, however, on 25 April.

Ascent during mid-April 2003. In mid-April 2003 Klaus Bataille (a physicist and seismologist teaching geophysics at the University of Concepción) and his students conducted field work on Llaima. Amid an interval of seismic and volcanic quiet on 18 April they ascended into the region of ice melt near the summit region, and made direct observations relevant to the issue of heat transport. Bataille made the following comments.

"A week after the explosion announced by the OVDAS, we (8 students and myself) went to install two broadband seismic stations to study the evolution of its activity, and we installed a GPS receiver as well. When we finished with the installation, it was a clear day and we decided to climb as much as we could. We began early in the morning [of 18 April] . . . [and] could see from the distance fumaroles coming from the crater, and several vents with vapor and gases coming out from different places, some 200-300 m below the crater, towards the N. We did not find any impediment to continue climbing, neither physical difficulties nor anomalous activity from the crater. Thus the whole group continued up to 300 m below the crater, where four persons stayed due to physical conditions, and five continued up to the crater. The persons who stayed (me included) realized that there was an incredible warm feeling while laying on the ground. This was due to the amount of vapor with some faint smell of sulphur. We could even take off our jackets and shirts, as long as we were laying flat. After lying for a while it was even too hot to [continue]. Fantastic feeling, lying almost on top of the volcano, with a tremendous view, feeling the warmth through the rocks."

Thus, on 18 April, Bataille and students affirmed the previously stated idea of heat emerging to cause the melting and leading to the sudden emergence of crevasses observed since December 2002. A later clarification from Bataille on the mode of heat transfer (viz., "conductive heating," passed through the rocks; or "convective heating," transported by warmed fluids such as gases) resulted in this statement: "I'm not convinced of 'conductive heating' as a direct source for the ice melting, because of the large amount of gases through the system. I'm inclined instead, to believe that melting of the ice is simply due to the large amount of vapor flowing through the loose rocks. However, I agree that [these] gases have to be produced while in contact with hot material, and in this sense [could] be affected by 'conductive heating.'"

Thus, Bataille observed that the rocks in the ice-melt zone around the summit were warm to the touch. He concluded that they were heated by deeper sources and water vapor transported the heat to the surface.

The scientists discussed their results in a subsequent conference paper (Bataille and others, 2003) and on their website, highlighting the seismic and GPS stations installed on Llaima's W and N sides. The former seismic station, near the Refuge Tucapel, began operating on 17-18 April. The latter seismic station, near Captrén, began operating on 19-20 April.

Their recordings lacked earthquakes that could be linked to deeper sources (no fractures nor seismo-tectonic events) during the period between April and the following 4 months. The whole period was dominated by a sequence of tremors due to the activity associated with the crater. Tremor energy decayed gradually in time. The frequencies involved were generally stable, though peculiar and without a good model for their genesis.

Reference. Bataille, K., Hermosilla, G., and Mora, D., 2003, (title translated from Spanish) Seismic activity of Llaima volcano: Dominated by phreatomagmatic sources?, 10th Chilean Geological Congress (10° Congreso Geológico), session 5, paper 63, (October 2003, Universidad de Concepción) (also cited in Revista geológica de Chile; ISSN 0716-0208)

Geologic Background. Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two main historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic, stratovolcano has a volume of 400 km3. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 km3 Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by Strombolian, Hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.

Information Contacts: Hugo Alberto Moreno Roa, Gustavo Alejandro Fuentealba Cifuentes, Paola Andrea Peña Salazar, Erwin Edinson Medel Segura, Pedro Jorge Ortiz Hernandez, Beatriz Eliana Alarcón Avedaño, Chile Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur-Servivio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile Volcanologic Observatory of the South Andes—National Service of Geology and Mining) (OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN), Manantial 1710-Carmino del Alba, Temuco, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); Servicio Nacional de Geología e Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Av. Santa María 0104, Casilla 10465, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); Klaus Bataille, Departamento Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Concepción, Víctor Lamas 1290, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile (URL: http://www3.udec.cl/geologia/).


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


One minor eruption but otherwise low activity during February 2004

Activity at Manam's two summit craters remained low during February 2004. The summit area was cloud covered most of the month; however, when clear, both craters were observed releasing white vapor at weak to moderate rates. A single explosion occurred during the month, on 14 February at Southern Crater. A thick dark gray ash cloud and weak roaring noises accompanied the explosion. The ash cloud rose several hundred meters above the summit before drifting NW of the island, resulting in fine ashfall downwind. There was no nighttime glow observed.

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea.


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


1-17 February 2004-ash falls 30 km to the E

The eruptive activity at Tavurvur that began in early October 2002 ceased on 17 February 2004. From 1-17 February the activity was characterized by emissions of light to pale ash clouds accompanied by occasional moderate explosions that produced thick ash plumes. The ash plumes rose 1000-2000 m above the summit before being blown to the E and NE resulting in ashfall in the Duke of York islands, ~ 30 km E of Rabaul.

A slight change in wind direction resulted in fine ashfall over Rabaul Town and villages downwind on 6 and 13-15 February. Occasional weak roaring noises accompanied some of the explosions on 5 and 11 February. From 18 February until the month's end, Tavurvur was only releasing weak white vapor, with occasional blue vapor. Seismic activity between 1 and 17 February reflected the ash emissions at the summit. One high frequency event occurred on 5 February, located NE of the caldera. Ground deformation indicated a deflationary trend. The real-time GPS and electronic tilt site on Matupit Island, in the center of the caldera, showed a deflationary trend since the middle of the month.

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: Ima Itikarai, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea.


Ruang (Indonesia) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Ruang

Indonesia

2.3°N, 125.37°E; summit elev. 725 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption on 25 September 2002 is the largest in Indonesia in many years

The 25 September 2002 eruption of Ruang (BGVN 27:10 and 28:08) was, according to the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), the largest in Indonesia for many years and was well observed by satellite sensors. The eruption cloud reached a height of ~ 20 km, and a pyroclastic flow toward the SE damaged an area 1.6 km². Although no village was hit by the pyroclastic flow, two were heavily damaged by very thick ash material.

The Darwin VAAC and Bureau of Meteorology have published images and animations of the eruption clouds (figure 2). The satellites and images included those from Aqua/MODIS, GMS Java Animation, and AVHRR sensors. Some ash clouds dispersed towards Singapore and Jakarta. A higher level cloud remained nearly stationary near the tropopause (the top of the troposphere, where most of the Earth's weather occurs). The highest cloud moved eastwards in the stratosphere. The color/shading reflects the strength of the detected ash signal.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Night-time infrared image of the Ruang eruption processed to highlight volcanic ash. N is towards the top; the local island margins are shown, Sulawesi to the right and Borneo to the left. The enhanced areas disclose the W portion of the plume drifting over Borneo and the higher E ash and gas cloud nearly stationary over the eruption site. A third area of ash and ice cloud is nearly invisible near the bottom center. Courtesy of NASA, NOAA, and the Darwin VAAC.

The TOMS scientists published an image on their website (figure 3), described as follows: "The TOMS overpass on September 25 was too early to capture the fresh eruption cloud, but ash and SO2 were evident on the following day. The aerosol signal over S Borneo is at least partly due to smoke from biomass burning; the ash cloud from Ruang can be seen over NE Borneo. A data gap may be obscuring any SO2 or ash immediately W of Ruang."

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Ruang erupted on 25 September 2002. A pass the next day of the Earth Probe satellite with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument yielded this map of SO2 concentrations. Courtesy of Simon Carn and Arlin Krueger.

Geologic Background. Ruang volcano, not to be confused with the better known Raung volcano on Java, is the southernmost volcano in the Sangihe Island arc, north of Sulawesi Island. The 4 x 5 km island volcano rises to 725 m across a narrow strait SW of the larger Tagulandang Island. The summit contains a crater partially filled by a lava dome initially emplaced in 1904. Explosive eruptions recorded since 1808 have often been accompanied by lava dome formation and pyroclastic flows that have damaged inhabited areas.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Nia Haerani, Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazards (formerly VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Simon A. Carn and Arlin Krueger, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (NASA/UMBC), University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Ruapehu (New Zealand) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Ruapehu

New Zealand

39.28°S, 175.57°E; summit elev. 2797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strategy, prediction, and management of crater-lake overflow and powerful lahar

Citing risks about a lahar expected when an ash dam surrounding Ruapehu's crater collapses, the New Zealand government decided that draining, sluicing, or siphoning the volcano's crater lake to reduce the danger was too hazardous, reported Jo-Marie Brown in The New Zealand Times (10, 17, and 19 March 2004). The articles noted that, instead, the government decided to bolster extensive safety measures already in place around the volcano, including improving alarm systems. These new measures should provide warnings of lahar occurrences at least an hour and a half in advance. The government also elected to strengthen bridges and build an embankment to withstand lahars.

The New Zealand Department of Conservation has an extensive outreach to discuss the crater lake-lahar problem (figure 26). They point out that the crater lake on Mt. Ruapehu was refilling after it was emptied by eruptions in 1995 and 1996. This lake lies over the main active vent of the volcano. Before the eruptions, the level of the crater lake was controlled by an outlet that drained water across a sill of lava into the head of the Whangaehu Valley. During the 1995-96 eruptions, this outlet was blocked by 7 m of tephra (fine ash particles and other larger materials ejected by the volcano).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. This publicly distributed image was created in response to the threat of lahars descending the Whangaehu Valley at Ruapehu in 2004. In addition to local geography, it shows the location of warning sensors, key bridges, and a critical embankment ("bund") to direct the lahars. The associated information discusses warnings of impending lahars on the order of 1-2 hours before they arrive at critical downstream sites. Courtesy of the New Zealand Department of Conservation.

The Department also noted that since March 1999, the crater lake had risen 52 m and was filling at a rate of 5,300 m3 per day. On 15 March 2004 the lake's surface elevation was reported at 2,527.6 m above sea level. In mid-March 2004 the Department also reported that the lake was then ~ 96% full, a point ~ 2 m below the base of the tephra dam emplaced by the 1995-6 eruptions (the old overflow point). The predicted time for the lake to completely fill was given as early April 2004 to November 2004. An estimated 60 lahars have swept down the mountain's southern side through the Whangaehu Valley in the past 150 years. A lahar in 1953 killed 151 people at Tangiwai. The Department of Conservation reported additional details regarding the crater lake: there was low to normal hydrothermal activity; the water temperature on 15 March 2004 was 35°C; and the lake color was gray.

Geologic Background. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least four cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 km3 dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and surrounded by another 100 km3 ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

Information Contacts: The New Zealand Herald, PO Box 32, Auckland, New Zealand (URL: http://www.nzherald.co.nz/); New Zealand Department of Conservation, Private Bag, Turangi, New Zealand (URL: http://www.doc.govt.nz/); Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences (IGNS), Private Bag 2000, Wairakei, New Zealand (URL: http://www.gns/cri.nz/).


Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Soufriere Hills

United Kingdom

16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 915 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash to 7 km altitude on 3 March 2004; pyroclastic flows reached the sea

The Soufrière Hills volcano was quiet for the last few months of 2003, following activity in May and July that included significant dome growth (BGVN 28:10 and 28:12). Light ash-venting had last occurred during a period of low-amplitude tremor 3-8 October. A seismic event in mid-January 2004 and a period of tremor and mudflow activity in late February 2004 were followed by renewed eruptive activity on 3 March 2004.

Between 1 October and 18 December 2003 no dome growth was observed, and only a few earthquakes per week were recorded. Beginning 18 December 2003, SO2 emissions increased markedly from the previous month's average of 500 tons/day (t/d), reaching 3,600 t/d (see table 53). On 18 January 2004, a swarm of low-amplitude long-period (LP) earthquakes began, with ~1,000 separate events over an interval of 36 hours. Fewer than 40 of these earthquakes triggered the automatic seismic-detection systems. Another swarm occurred on 30 January, this time lasting about 30 hours. Again, instruments recorded ~1,000 separate events; these, however, were much weaker and only four triggered the detection systems.

Table 53. Summary of SO2 emissions recorded at Soufrière Hills, 5 December 2003 to 12 March 2004, using an array of three scanning UV spectrometers. Courtesy of Montserrat Volcano Observatory.

Date SO2 emissions (metric tons/day)
05 Dec-11 Dec 2003 300-900
12 Dec-18 Dec 2003 500-3,600
19 Dec-25 Dec 2003 --
26 Dec-01 Jan 2004 500
02 Jan-08 Jan 2004 300
09 Jan-15 Jan 2004 200-590
16 Jan-22 Jan 2004 440 on 22 January (equipment servicing on other days)
23 Jan-29 Jan 2004 500-700
30 Jan-05 Feb 2004 439-1017
06 Feb-12 Feb 2004 350-450
13 Feb-19 Feb 2004 350-650
20 Feb-26 Feb 2004 496-920
27 Feb-04 Mar 2004 480-820
05 Mar-12 Mar 2004 340-1250

A period of low-level tremor, consisting of many small LP earthquakes, lasted for about 36 hours beginning 21 February. On 24 February heavy rainfall (10 mm in 2.5 hours) resulted in mudflow activity in the Belham valley; signs of mudflows were also observed in Plymouth.

Beginning the week of 27 February, activity increased significantly. On 2 March, a period of low-level tremor included some small hybrid earthquakes. The tremor continued until afternoon on 3 March, when, at around 1444, seismicity greatly increased and an explosion and collapse event occurred. According to reports from the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) this was the most significant event since the collapse event of 12-13 July 2003.

The event on 3 March 2004 produced ash clouds that reached altitudes of about 7 km above sea level, and pyroclastic flows were observed in the Tar River, with at least two incidents of flows reaching the sea. Seismicity returned to close to background levels by 1525, but vigorous ash venting continued until the following morning. Low-level tremor accompanied by hybrid earthquakes continued for the next 18 hours, including a series of hybrid earthquakes during the evening of 3 March.

Visual observations first suggested that the 3 March explosion removed the small dome that had grown in the collapse scar in late July 2003. Photographs taken on 28 February and 5 March showed the 3 March collapse to have also removed part of the NW dome remnant originally built up during 1995-1998.

After 3 March, activity remained elevated for several days. A period of low-level tremor occurred on 4 March, beginning at around 1300 and lasting three hours. On 5 March a small explosion was recorded at 1009, followed by a period of ash venting. Between 5 and 12 March activity returned to lower levels, with 1 LP and 15 hybrid earthquakes recorded. On 10 March, however, there was a short (10-20 minutes) period of elevated seismicity early in the morning; later in the day fresh pyroclastic-flow deposits were observed in the upper reaches of the Tar River Valley. During the second half of the week, short episodes of ash and steam venting were periodically observed, and ash fallout occurred as far N as St. Georges Hill.

On 15 March, the Washington VAAC reported a plume of ash extending to the W from the summit. The following day MVO reported a plume extending 250 km (135 nautical miles) W of the volcano. SO2 emissions fluctuated during February and the first two weeks of March, peaking at 1017 t/d on 1 February and 1250 t/d on 9 March (table 2).

A beautifully illustrated look at the eruption from 1995 to present is now available (Kokelaar, 2002; Druitt and Kokellar, 2002).

References. Kokelaar, B.P., 2002, Setting, chronology and consequences of the eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (1995-1999), in Druitt, T.H. and Kokelaar, B.P., eds., 2002: The eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society London, Memoir No. 21, p. 1-43.

Druitt, T.H. and Kokelaar, B.P., eds., 2002: The eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 1995 to 1999. Geological Society London.

Geologic Background. The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. The volcano is flanked by Pleistocene complexes to the north and south. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east by edifice collapse, was formed about 2000 years ago as a result of the youngest of several collapse events producing submarine debris-avalanche deposits. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits, including those from an eruption that likely preceded the 1632 CE settlement of the island, allowing cultivation on recently devegetated land to near the summit. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but no historical eruptions were recorded until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

Information Contacts: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Fleming, Montserrat, West Indies (URL: http://www.mvo.ms/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS E/SP23, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov).


Stromboli (Italy) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


After 10 February 2004, explosions at upper limit of that typically seen

According to aviation reports from the U.S. Air Force, the web camera at Stromboli captured shots of light ash emissions on 7 and 11 November 2003. In both cases plumes rose to ~ 2.5 km elevation. The Stromboli Web video camera showed a small explosion on 10 December 2003 that produced a plume to a height of ~ 1 km above the volcano. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Catania reported that explosive activity at Stromboli's three summit craters increased after 10 February 2004, leading to significant growth of the cinder cones inside the craters. Several powerful explosions, especially from Crater 1 (the NE crater) and Crater 3 (the SW crater), sent scoriae 200 m above the rims. These powerful explosions led to fallout of fresh bombs and lapilli on Il Pizzo Sopra la Fossa (an area atop the volcano about 100 m above the crater terrace) in early March. As of 8 March, Strombolian activity was occurring at the volcano, with variations in the number and frequency of explosions within normally observed limits, and the intensity of explosions at the higher limit of commonly observed activity.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/); Toulouse VAAC, Météo-France, 42 Avenue G. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France (URL: http://www.meteo.fr/vaac/); AGI Online news service, Italy (URL: http://www.agi.it/).


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Tabulation of aviation reports issued during 2000-mid-2003

Activity on Ulawun occurs frequently and is monitored and reported from several sources including the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), the U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), and imagery from several satellites including NOAA GMS (daylight) and MODIS (infrared). The continuing activity after an eruption on 28 September 2000 (see BGVN 25:08) resulted in BGVN reports every few months since that event (BGVN reports on Ulawun have appeared in nine subsequent issues through the end of 2003).

This issue supplements the Bulletin reports with those from the Darwin VAAC archives (table 2), which included information provided from ground, airborne, and space-based sensing. RVO reports that Ulawun remained quiet during February 2004. Emissions from the main vent consisted of white vapor being released at weak to moderate rates. No noise or night-time glow were reported during the month. No emission was reported from the two N-valley vents. Seismicity was at a low level.

Table 2. Dates of issue and the principal comments in Darwin VAAC reports concerning Ulawun, September 2000-July 2003. Similar or duplicate messages are not shown. In many cases ash cloud trajectory information has been omitted. On this table, the distance unit Nautical Miles (NM) has not been converted to kilometers (1 NM = 1.852 km (exactly)). Courtesy of the Darwin VAAC.

Date Source Eruption Details / Ash Cloud
28 Sep 2000 AIREP, AIR NIUGINI, ANK. Volcanic Activity reported at 28/2005Z - Ash plume to 11 km, rapid growth at top, spreading out 30 NM to N to SW. ASH CLOUD: Latest satellite imagery shows possible ash cloud extending 60 NM in an arc from ENE to the WSW.
29 Sep 2000 AIREP, AIR NIUGINI, ANK. There is evidence of volcanic ash on satellite imagery from 28/1800Z
30 Sep 2000 AIREP/Geological Survey Papua New Guinea. The Geological Survey confirms this eruption and notes that limited evacuations have commenced with the prospect of further seismic and eruptive activity. However 29/2230Z ash emissions were limited to infrequent puffs.
01 Oct 2000 AIREP/Geological Survey Papua New Guinea. A Geological Survey report (at 01/0001Z) noted the summit activity was relatively quiet for last 24 hours. QANTAS AIREP at 30/0501Z also observed the lack of activity.
29 Apr 2001 AIREP from PNG at 292130Z. Aircraft observed smoke cloud up to 9 km and drifting NW and SW direction out to 50/70 miles radius. ASH CLOUD: Satellite imagery [29/2132Z] shows possible volcanic plume extending 65 NM to the W and 30 NM to the N and S.
30 Apr 2001 -- Examination of latest satellite imagery [30/0530Z] indicates significant eruption has ceased. Ash plume may reach 14 km.
01 May 2001 Visual and infra-red GMS and NOAA satellite imagery, RVO. RVO advise remains on a high alert level with further eruptions possible. ASH CLOUD: There is no evidence of ash cloud at this time, but widespread cloud in the area is making detection difficult.
03 May 2001 AIREP from PNG 29/4/2001 2130Z. Visual and infra-red GMS and NOAA satellite imagery, RVO. A report by an aircraft of volcanic activity [on 29 April] at about 2130Z with smoke/ash cloud up to 9 km, and confirmed by the RVO and satellites surveillance, initiated a series of Volcanic Advisories. The latest report from RVO this morning states that activity has moderated. ASH CLOUD: Satellite surveillance has not identified any ash cloud since the initial eruption.
28 Aug 2001 GMS/NOAA Satellite Imagery. Ash observed on satellite imagery. Analysis indicates eruption is low level. ASH CLOUD: Ash plume 5 NM wide, extending 15 miles to the S of the summit. Ash expected to be below 4 km.
12 Sep 2002 NOAA/GMS satellite imagery. Small low level plume detected on visible satellite imagery at 11/2100Z. Plume extended 60 NM from summit in the sector NNW to NNE.
18 Sep 2002 GMS satellite imagery. Low level plume detected on visible satellite imagery at 18/2100Z. ASH CLOUD: Very thin plume extends 40 NM to the WSW
19 Sep 2002 GMS satellite imagery. Plume can no longer be detected on latest GMS imagery.
27 Sep 2002 GMS satellite imagery. Ash plume observed on satellite imagery [27/]2030Z. ASH CLOUD: Narrow ash cloud extends 40 NM to SW
28 Sep 2002 GMS satellite imagery. Ash plume observed on satellite imagery 2130Z. ASH CLOUD: Narrow ash cloud extends 20 NM to the NNW.
15 Oct 2002 GMS satellite imagery. Low level ash plume observed on satellite imagery 15/2225Z. ASH CLOUD: Ash plume extends 20 NM N of volcano. Winds indicate plume probably low level.
21 Oct 2002 AIREP PZ-ANF, GMS imagery. Smoke reported in area, and plume observed via GMS imagery. ASH CLOUD: Cloud up to 4 km, extending 5 NM, 30 NM wide to SE.
01 Nov 2002 AIREP. Smoke observed 01/0042Z drifting to NW of volcano at 3 km.
02 Nov 2002 AIREP AIR NIUGINI. Ash observed 02/2030Z drifting to ESE of volcano to 3 km.
11 Apr 2003 NOAA and GMS imagery. Plume evident on 10/2019Z and 11/0357Z NOAA image[s], height estimated below 3 km.
14 Apr 2003 GMS imagery. Possible plume evident on 13/2032Z, 13/2132Z and 13/2225Z [images], height estimated below 3 km
26 Apr 2003 GMS imagery. Possible plume evident on 26/0325Z MODIS as reported by KGWC/ Washington VAAC, height estimated below 4 km.
30 Apr 2003 GMS and MODIS imagery. Possible narrow low level plume evident on 30/0010Z MODIS and 30/0230Z GMS visible image[s], extending 30 NM WNW, height estimated below 3 km.
03 May 2003 KGWC. Ash/steam plume observed on 02/2026Z F13 DMSP Imagery. Plume extends 80 NM W of volcano, height to 4 km.
04 May 2003 NOAA satellite imagery. Thin low level plume observed on 04/2053Z. Plume extends 10 NM SW of Ulawun, height estimated at 4 km.
06 May 2003 GMS satellite imagery. Thin low level plume observed on 06/2032Z.
01 Jun 2003 GOES9 satellite imagery. Thin low level plume observed on [May] 31/2325Z.
18 Jun 2003 AFWA. Faint ash/steam plume seen on 18/2206Z satellite imagery.
20 Jun 2003 NOAA 17. Faint plume seen on NOAA 17 20/0004Z satellite imagery.
20 Jun 2003 NOAA 15. Faint plume seen 20/2050Z.
23 Jun 2003 NOAA 15. Faint plume seen on 23/2120Z.
24 Jun 2003 NOAA 15. Faint plume seen on 24/2057Z.
26 Jun 2003 MODIS. Faint plume seen on 26/0005Z extending 25 NM SW, height estimated at 4 km.
28 Jun 2003 NOAA 15. Faint plume seen on 28/2101Z.
02 Jul 2003 NOAA 15. Thin ash plume to 5 km extending 25 NM WSW of summit on 02/2108Z.
13 Jul 2003 AFWA. Thin ash plume to 4 km moving to the W at 10 knots [10 NM/hour or 18 km/hour].
22 Jul 2003 GOES9. Possible ash plume seen on 22/0130Z visible GOES imagery, extending 30 NM to NW, height estimated at 3 km.

The VAAC reports contain numerous abbreviations; however, a few of the terms here are in widespread use referring to satellites, meteorology, and various related agencies (NOAA, AFWA, GOES9, MODIS, and KGWC . . . DMSP Imagery, etc.) or AIREP (atmospheric conditions reported from aircraft). "RVO" stands for Rabaul Volcano Observatory. Other terms may be less familiar: "AIR NIUGINI, ANK." refers to a commuter plane in the fleet of the national airline based in Papua New Guinea. The stated dates and times are not local ones, but instead refer to those at the zero (prime) meridian. For example, 04/2240Z means the fourth day of the stated month at 2240 UTC (i.e. "Z," spoken as Zulu, is shorthand for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea; Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).


Witori (Papua New Guinea) — February 2004 Citation iconCite this Report

Witori

Papua New Guinea

5.576°S, 150.516°E; summit elev. 724 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Two explosions on 24 February 2004, otherwise quiet during that month

Pago was mainly quiet throughout the month of February 2004. However, two explosions were reported in the early hours of 24 February. The explosions were accompanied by thick dark grey ash clouds from the lower and upper vents. The ash clouds drifted SW of the volcano resulting in fine ashfall downwind. Jet-like noises were also heard at 0140 on 24 February accompanying the explosions. A weak glow was visible from the lower vents.

Geologic Background. The 5.5 x 7.5 km Witori caldera on the northern coast of central New Britain contains the young historically active cone of Pago. The Buru caldera cuts the SW flank of Witori volcano. The gently sloping outer flanks of Witori volcano consist primarily of dacitic pyroclastic-flow and airfall deposits produced during a series of five major explosive eruptions from about 5600 to 1200 years ago, many of which may have been associated with caldera formation. The post-caldera Pago cone may have formed less than 350 years ago. Pago has grown to a height above that of the Witori caldera rim, and a series of ten dacitic lava flows from it covers much of the caldera floor. The youngest of these was erupted during 2002-2003 from vents extending from the summit nearly to the NW caldera wall.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).