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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Stromboli (Italy) Constant explosions from both crater areas during November 2018-February 2019

Krakatau (Indonesia) Ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, and lava extrusion during October-December; partial collapse and tsunami in late December; Surtseyan activity in December-January 2019

Masaya (Nicaragua) Lava lake persists with decreased thermal output, November 2018-February 2019

Santa Maria (Guatemala) Daily explosions cause steam-and-ash plumes and block avalanches, November 2018-February 2019

Reventador (Ecuador) Multiple daily explosions with ash plumes and incandescent blocks rolling down the flanks, October 2018-January 2019

Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) Weak explosions and ash plumes beginning 21 October 2018

Kerinci (Indonesia) A persistent gas-and-steam plume and intermittent ash plumes occurred from July 2018 through January 2019

Yasur (Vanuatu) Eruption continues with ongoing explosions and multiple active crater vents, August 2018-January 2019

Ambae (Vanuatu) Ash plumes and lahars in July 2018 cause evacuation of the island; intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes through January 2019

Agung (Indonesia) Ongoing intermittent ash plumes and frequent gas-and-steam plumes during August 2018-January 2019

Erebus (Antarctica) Lava lakes persist through 2017 and 2018

Villarrica (Chile) Intermittent Strombolian activity ejects incandescent bombs around crater rim, September 2018-February 2019



Stromboli (Italy) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Constant explosions from both crater areas during November 2018-February 2019

Nearly constant fountains of lava at Stromboli have served as a natural beacon in the Tyrrhenian Sea for at least 2,000 years. Eruptive activity at the summit consistently occurs from multiple vents at both a north crater area (N Area) and a southern crater group (CS Area) on the Terrazza Craterica at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a large scarp that runs from the summit down the NW side of the island. Thermal and visual cameras that monitor activity at the vents are located on the nearby Pizzo Sopra La Fossa, above the Terrazza Craterica, and at a location closer to the summit craters.

Eruptive activity from November 2018 to February 2019 was consistent in terms of explosion intensities and rates from both crater areas at the summit, and similar to activity of the past few years (table 5). In the North Crater area, both vents N1 and N2 emitted a mixture of coarse (lapilli and bombs) and fine (ash) ejecta; most explosions rose less than 80 m above the vents, some reached 150 m. Average explosion rates ranged from 4 to 21 per hour. In the CS crater area continuous degassing and occasional intense spattering were typical at vent C, vent S1 was a low-intensity incandescent jet throughout the period. Explosions from vent S2 produced 80-150 m high ejecta of ash, lapilli and bombs at average rates of 3-16 per hour. Thermal activity at Stromboli was actually higher during November 2018-February 2019 than it had been in previous months as recorded in the MIROVA Log Radiative Power data from MODIS infrared satellite information (figure 139).

Table 5. Summary of activity levels at Stromboli, November 2018-February 2019. Low intensity activity indicates ejecta rising less than 80 m and medium intensity is ejecta rising less than 150 m. Data courtesy of INGV.

Month N Area Activity CS Area Activity
Nov 2018 Low- to medium-intensity explosions at both N1 and N2, lapilli and bombs mixed with ash, explosion rates of 6-16 per hour. Continuous degassing at C; intense spattering on 26 Nov. Low- to medium-intensity incandescent jetting at S1. Low- to medium-intensity explosions at S2 with a mix of coarse and fine ejecta and explosion rates of 3-18 per hour.
Dec 2018 Low- to medium-intensity explosions at both N1 and N2, coarse and fine ejecta, explosion rates of 4-21 per hour. Three days of intense spattering at N2. Continuous degassing at C; intense spattering 1-2 Dec. Low- to medium-intensity incandescent jets at S1, low and medium-intensity explosions of coarse and fine material at S2. Average explosion raters were 10-18 per hour at the beginning of the month, 3-4 per hour during last week.
Jan 2019 Low- to medium-intensity explosions at N1, coarse ejecta. Low- to medium-intensity and spattering at N2, coarse and fine ejecta. Explosion rates of 9-16 per hour. Continuous degassing and low-intensity explosions of coarse ejecta at C. Low-intensity incandescent jets at S1. Low- and medium-intensity explosions of coarse and fine ejecta at S2.
Feb 2019 Medium-intensity explosions with coarse ejecta at N1. Low-intensity explosions with fine ash at N2. Explosion rates of 4-11 per hour. Continuous degassing and low-intensity explosions with coarse and fine ejecta at C and S2. Low intensity incandescent jets at S1. Explosion rates of 2-13 per hour.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 139.Thermal activity at Stromboli increased during November 2018-February 2019 compared with the preceding several months as recorded in the MIROVA project log radiative power data taken from MODIS thermal satellite information. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity at the N area was very consistent during November 2018 (figure 140). Explosions of low-intensity (less than 80 m high) to medium-intensity (less than 150 m high) occurred at both the N1 and N2 vents and produced coarse material (lapilli and bombs) mixed with ash, at rates averaging 6-16 explosions per hour. In the SC area continuous degassing was reported from vent C with a brief period of intense spattering on 26 November. At vent S1 low- to medium-intensity incandescent jetting was reported. At vent S2, low- and medium-intensity explosive activity produced a mixture of coarse and fine (ash) material at a frequency of 3-18 events per hour.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 140. The Terrazza Craterica at Stromboli on 12 November 2018 as viewed by the thermal camera placed on the Pizzo sopra la Fossa, showing the two main crater areas and the active vents within each area that are discussed in the text. Heights above the crater terrace, as indicators of intensity of the explosions, are shown divided into three intervals of low (basso), medium (media), and high (alta). Courtesy of INGV (Report 46/2018, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale 05/11/2018 - 11/11/2018, data emissione 13/11/2018).

Similar activity continued during December at both crater areas, although there were brief periods of more intense activity. Low- to medium-intensity explosions at both N area vents produced a mixture of coarse and fine-grained material at rates averaging 4-21 per hour. During 6-7 December ejecta from the N vents fell onto the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco and rolled down the gullies to the coast, producing tongues of debris (figure 141). An explosion at N1 on 12 December produced a change in the structure of the crater area. During 10-16 December the ejecta from the N area landed outside the crater on the Sciara del Fuoco. Intense spattering was observed from N2 on 18, 22, and 31 December. In the CS area, continuous degassing took place at vent C, along with a brief period of intense spattering on 1-2 December. Low to medium intensity incandescent jets persisted at S1 along with low-and medium-intensity explosions of coarse and fine-grained material at vent S2. Rates of explosion at the CS area were higher at the beginning of December (10-18 per hour) and lower during the last week of the month (3-4 per hour).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 141. Images from the Q 400 thermal camera at Stromboli taken on 6 December 2018 showed the accumulation of pyroclastic material in several gullies on the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco following an explosion at vent N2 at 1520 UTC. The images illustrate the rapid cooling of the pyroclastic material in the subsequent two hours. Courtesy of INGV (Report 50/2018, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 03/12/2018 - 09/12/2018, data emissione 11/12/2018).

Explosive intensity was low (ejecta less than 80 m high) at vent N1 at the beginning of January 2019 and increased to medium (ejecta less than 150 m high) during the second half of the month, producing coarse ejecta of lapilli and bombs. Intensity at vent N2 was low to medium throughout the month with both coarse- and fine-grained material ejected. Explosions from N2 sent large blocks onto the Sciara del Fuoco several times throughout the month and usually was accompanied by intense spattering. Explosion rates varied, with averages of 9 to 16 per hour, throughout the month in the N area. In the CS area continuous degassing occurred at vent C, and low-intensity explosions of coarse-grained material were reported during the second half of the month. Low-intensity incandescent jets at S1 along with low- and medium-intensity explosions of coarse and fine-grained material at S2 persisted throughout the month.

A helicopter overflight of Stromboli on 8 January 2019 allowed for detailed visual and thermal observations of activity and of the morphology of the vents at the summit (figure 142). Vent C had two small hornitos, and a small scoria cone was present in vent S1, while a larger crater was apparent at S2. In the N crater area vent N2 had a large scoria cone that faced the Sciara del Fuoco to the north; three narrow gullies were visible at the base of the cone (figure 143). Vent S1 was a large crater containing three small vents aligned in a NW-SE trend; INGV scientists concluded the vents formed as a result of the 12 December 2018 explosion. Thermal images showed relatively low temperatures at all fumaroles compared with earlier visits.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 142. Thermal images from Stromboli taken during the overflight of 8 January 2019 showed the morphological structure of the individual vents of the N and CS crater areas. Courtesy of INGV (Report 03/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 07/01/2019 - 13/01/2019, (data emissione 15/01/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 143. An image taken at Stromboli during the overflight of 8 January 2019 shows the morphological structure of the summit Terrazza Craterica with three gullies at the base of the scoria cone of vent N2. The top thermal image (inset a) shows that the fumaroles in the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco have low temperatures. Courtesy of INGV (Report 03/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 07/01/2019 - 13/01/2019, data emissione 15/01/2019).

Activity during February 2019 declined slightly from the previous few months. Explosions at vent N1 were of medium-intensity and produced coarse material (lapilli and bombs). At N2, low-intensity explosions produced fine ash. Average explosion rates in the N area ranged from 4-11 per hour. At the CS area, continuous degassing and low-intensity explosions produced coarse and fine-grained material from vents C and S2 while low-intensity incandescent jets were active at S1. The explosion rates at the CS area averaged 2-13 per hour.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period from about 13,000 to 5000 years ago was followed by formation of the modern edifice. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5000 years ago as a result of the most recent of a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy, (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/en/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, and lava extrusion during October-December; partial collapse and tsunami in late December; Surtseyan activity in December-January 2019

Krakatau volcano, between Java in Sumatra in the Sunda Straight of Indonesia, is known for its catastrophic collapse in 1883 that produce far-reaching pyroclastic flows, ashfall, and tsunami. The pre-1883 edifice had grown within an even older collapse caldera that formed around 535 CE, resulting in a 7-km-wide caldera and the three surrounding islands of Verlaten, Lang, and Rakata (figure 55). Eruptions that began in late December 1927 (figures 56 and 57) built the Anak Krakatau cone above sea level (Sudradjat, 1982; Simkin and Fiske, 1983). Frequent smaller eruptions since that time, over 40 short episodes consisting of ash plumes, incandescent blocks and bombs, and lava flows, constructed an island reaching 338 m elevation.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. The three islands of Verlaten, Lang, and Rakata formed during a collapse event around 535 CE. Another collapse event occurred in 1883, producing widespread ashfall, pyroclastic flows, and triggering a tsunami. Through many smaller eruptions since then, Anak Krakatau has since grown in the center of the caldera. Sentinel-2 natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) satellite image acquired on 16 November 2018, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Photo sequence (made from a film) at 6-second intervals from the early phase of activity on 24 January 1928 that built the active Anak Krakatau cone above the ocean surface. Plume height reached about 1 km. View is from about 4.5 km away at a beach on Verlaten Island looking SE towards Rakata Island in the right background. Photos by Charles E. Stehn (Netherlands Indies Volcanological Survey) from the E.G. Zies Collection, Smithsonian Institution.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. Submarine explosions in January 1928 built the active Anak Krakatau cone above the ocean surface. View is from about 600 m away looking E towards Lang Island in the background. Photos by Charles E. Stehn (Netherlands Indies Volcanological Survey) from the E.G. Zies Collection, Smithsonian Institution.

Historically there has been a lot of confusion about the name and preferred spelling of this volcano. Some have incorrectly made a distinction between the pre-1883 edifice being called "Krakatoa" and then using "Krakatau" for the current volcano. Anak Krakatau is the name of the active cone, but the overall volcano name is simply Krakatau. Simkin and Fiske (1983) explained as follows: "Krakatau was the accepted spelling for the volcano in 1883 and remains the accepted spelling in modern Indonesia. In the original manuscript copy submitted to the printers of the 1888 Royal Society Report, now in the archives of the Royal Society, this spelling has been systematically changed by a neat red line through the final 'au' and the replacement 'oa' entered above; a late policy change that, from some of the archived correspondence, saddened several contributors to the volume."

After 15 months of quiescence Krakatau began a new eruption phase on 21 June 2018, characterized by ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, Strombolian activity, and lava flows. Ash plumes reached 4.9 km and a lava flow traveled down the SE flank and entered the ocean. This report summarizes the activity from October 2018 to January 2019 based on reports by Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), MAGMA Indonesia, the National Board for Disaster Management - Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), satellite data, and eye witness accounts.

Activity during October-21 December 2018. The eruption continued to eject incandescent ballistic ejecta, ash plumes, and lava flows in October through December 2018. On 22 December a partial collapse of Anak Krakatau began, dramatically changing the morphology of the island and triggering a deadly tsunami that impacted coastlines around the Sunda Straight. Following the collapse the vent was located below sea level and Surtseyan activity produced steam plumes, ash plumes, and volcanic lightning.

Sentinel-2 satellite images acquired through October show incandescence in the crater, lava flows on the SW flank, and incandescent material to the S to SE of the crater (figure 58). This correlates with eyewitness accounts of explosions ejecting incandescent ballistic ejecta, and Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) ash plume reports. The Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes to 1.5-2.4 km altitude that drifted in multiple directions during 17-19 October, but throughout most of October visual observations were limited due to fog. A video shared by Sutopo on 24 October shows ash emission and lava fountaining producing a lava flow that entered the ocean, resulting in a white plume. Video by Richard Roscoe of Photovolcanica shows explosions ejecting incandescent blocks onto the flanks and ash plumes accompanied by volcanic lightning on 25 October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing lava flows, incandescent avalanche deposits, and incandescence in the crater of Anak Krakatau during October 2018. Courtesy of Sentinel-2 hub playground.

Throughout November frequent ash plumes rose to 0.3-1.3 km altitude, with explosion durations spanning 29-212 seconds (figure 59). Observations by Øystein Lund Andersen describe explosions ejecting incandescent material with ash plumes and some associated lightning on 17 November (figure 60).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Sentinel-2 satellite images showing ash plumes at Krakatau during 6-16 November 2018. Natural color (Bands 4, 3, 2) Sentinel-2 images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Krakatau erupting an ash plume and incandescent material on 17 November 2018. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

During 1-21 December intermittent explosions lasting 46-776 seconds produced ash plumes that rose up to 1 km altitude. Thermal signatures were sporadically detected by various satellite thermal infrared sensors during this time. On 22 December ash plumes reached 0.3-1.5 km through the day and continuous tremor was recorded.

Activity and events during 22-28 December 2018. The following events during the evening of the 22nd were recorded by Øystein Lund Andersen, who was photographing the eruption from the Anyer-Carita area in Java, approximately 47 km from Anak Krakatau. Starting at 1429 local time, incandescence and ash plumes were observed and the eruption could be heard as intermittent 'cannon-fire' sounds, sometimes shaking walls and windows. An increase in intensity was noted at around 1700, when the ash column increased in height and was accompanied by volcanic lightning, and eruption sounds became more frequent (figure 61). A white steam plume began to rise from the shore of the southern flank. After sunset incandescent ballistic blocks were observed impacting the flanks, with activity intensity peaking around 1830 with louder eruption sounds and a higher steam plume from the ocean (figure 62).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. Ash plumes at Krakatau from 1429 to 1739 on 22 December 2018. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. Krakatau ejecting incandescent blocks and ash during 1823-1859 on 22 December 2018. The top and middle images show the steam plume at the shore of the southern flank. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

PVMBG recorded an eruption at 2103. When viewed at 2105 by Øystein Lund Andersen, a dark plume across the area blocked observations of Anak Krakatau and any incandescence (figure 63). At 2127-2128 the first tsunami wave hit the shore and traveled approximately 15 m inland (matching the BNPB determined time of 2127). At approximately 2131 the sound of the ocean ceased and was soon replaced by a rumbling sound and the second, larger tsunami wave impacted the area and traveled further inland, where it reached significant depths and caused extensive damage (figures 64 and 65). After the tsunami, eruption activity remained high and the eruption was heard again during intervals from 0300 through to early afternoon.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. Krakatau is no longer visible at 2116 on 22 December 2018, minutes before the first tsunami wave arrived at west Java. A dark ash plume takes up much of the view. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. The second tsunami wave arriving at Anyer-Carita area of Java after the Krakatau collapse. This photo was taken at 2133 on 22 December 2018, courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Photographs showing damage caused in the Anyer-Carita area of Java by the tsunami that was triggered by the partial collapse of Krakatau. From top to bottom, these images were taken approximately 40 m, 20 m, and 20 m from the shore on 23 December 2018. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

Observations on 23 December reveal steam-rich ash plumes and base surge traveling along the water, indicative of the shallow-water Surtseyan eruption (figure 66). Ashfall was reported on the 26th in several regions including Cilegon, Anyer, and Serang. The first radar observations of Krakatau were on 24 December and showed a significant removal of material from the island (figure 67). At 0600 on the 27th the volcanic alert level was increased from II to III (on a scale of I-IV) and a VONA with Aviation Color Code Red reported an ash plume to approximately 7 km altitude that dispersed to the NE. When Anak Krakatau was visible, Surtseyan activity and plumes were observed through the end of December. On 28 December, plumes reached 200-3000 m. At 0418 the eruption paused and the first observation of the post-collapse edifice was made. The estimated removed volume (above sea level) was 150-180 million m3, leaving a remaining volume of 40-70 million m3. The summit of the pre-collapse cone was 338 m, while the highest point post-collapse was reduced to 110 m. Hundreds of thousands of lightning strokes were detected during 22-28 December with varying intensity (figure 68).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Steam-rich plumes and underlying dark ash plumes from Surtseyan activity at Krakatau on 23 December 2018. Photos by Instagram user @didikh017 at Grand Cava Susi Air, via Sutopo.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. ALOS-2 satellite radar images showing Krakatau on 20 August 2018 and 24 December 2018. The later image shows that a large part of the cone of Anak Krakatau had collapsed. Courtesy of Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) via Sutopo.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Lightning strokes during the eruption of Krakatau within a 20 km radius of the volcano for 30 minute intervals on 23, 25, 26, and 28 December 2018. Courtesy of Chris Vagasky.

Damage resulting from the 22 December tsunami. On the 29 December the damage reported by BNPB was 1,527 heavily damaged housing units, 70 with moderate damage, 181 with light damage, 78 damaged lodging and warung units, 434 damaged boats and ships and some damage to public facilities. Damage was recorded in the five regencies of Pandenglang, Serang, South Lampung, Pesawaran and Tanggamus. A BNPB report on 14 January gave the following figures: 437 fatalities, 10 people missing, 31,943 people injured, and 16,198 people evacuated (figure 69). The eruption and tsunami resulted in damage to the surrounding islands, with scouring on the Anak-Krakatau-facing slope of Rakata and damage to vegetation on Kecil island (figure 70 and 71).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. The impacts of the tsunami that was triggered by a partial collapse of Anak Krakatau from an update given on 14 January 2019. Translations are as follows. Korban Meninggal: victims; Korban hilang: missing; Korban luka-luka: injured; Mengungsi: evacuated. The color scale from green to red along the coastline indicates the breakdown of the human impacts by area. Courtesy of BNPB.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. Damage on Rakata Island from the Krakatau tsunami. This part of the island is facing Anak Krakatau and the scoured area was estimated to be 25 m high. Photographs taken on 10 January 2019 by James Reynolds.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Damage to vegetation on Kecil island to the East of Krakatau, from the Krakatau December 2018 eruption. Photographs taken on 10 January 2019 by James Reynolds.

Activity during January 2019. Surtseyan activity continued into January 2019. Øystein Lund Andersen observed the eruption on 4-5 January. Activity on 4 January was near-continuous. The photographs show black cock's-tail jets that rose a few hundred meters before collapsing (figure 72), accompanied by white lateral base surge that spread from the vent across the ocean (figure 73), and white steam plumes that were visible from Anyer-Carita, West Java. In the evening the ash-and-steam plume was much higher (figure 74). It was also noted that older pumice had washed ashore at this location and a coating of sulfur was present along the beach and some of the water surface. Activity decreased again on the 5th (figure 75) with a VONA reporting an ash plume to 1.5 km towards the WSW. SO2 plumes were dispersed to the NE, E, and S during this time (figure 76).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Black ash plumes and white steam plumes from the Surtseyan eruption at Krakatau on 4 January 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. An expanding base surge at Krakatau on 4 January 2019 at 0911. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Ash-and-steam plumes at Krakatau at 1702-2250 on 4 January 2018. Lightning is illuminating the plume in the bottom image. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Ash plumes at Krakatau on 5 January 2019 at 0935. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions produced by Krakatau and drifting to the NE, E, and SE on 3-6 January 2018. Dates and times of the periods represented are listed at the top of each image. Courtesy of the NASA Space Goddard Flight Center.

During 5-9 January intermittent explosions lasting 20 seconds to 13 minutes produced ash plumes rising up to 1.2 km and dispersing E. From 11 to 19 January white plumes were observed up to 500 m. Observations were prevented due to fog during 20-31 January. MIROVA thermal data show elevated thermal anomalies from July through January, with a decrease in energy in November through January (figure 77). The radiative power detected in December-January was the lowest since June 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Log radiative power MIROVA plot of MODIS thermal infrared data for June 2018-January 2019. The peaks in energy correlate with observed lava flows. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Morphological changes to Anak Krakatau. Images taken before and after the collapse event show changes in the shoreline, destruction of vegetation, and removal of the cone (figure 78). A TerraSAR-X image acquired on 29 January shows that in the location where the cone and active vent was, a bay had formed, opening to the W (figure 79). These changes are also visible in Sentinel-2 satellite images, with the open bay visible through light cloud cover on 29 December (figure 80).

By 9 January a rim had formed, closing off the bay to the ocean and forming a circular crater lake. Photos by James Reynolds on 11 January show a new crater rim to the W of the vent, which was filled with water (figure 81). Steam and/or gas emissions were emanating from the surface in that area. The southern lava delta surface was covered with tephra, and part of the lava delta had been removed, leaving a smooth coastline. By the time these images were taken there was already extensive erosion of the fresh deposits around the island. Fresh material extended the coast in places and filled in bays to produce a more even shoreline.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Krakatau on 5 August 2018 (top) and on 11 January 2019 showing the edifice after the collapse event. The two drone photographs show approximately the same area. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen (top) and James Reynolds (bottom).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. TerraSAR-X radar images showing the morphological changes to Krakatau with the changes outlined in the bottom right image as follows. Red: 30 August 2018 (upper left image); blue: 29 December 2018 (upper right image); yellow: 9 January 2019 (lower left image). Part of the southern lava delta was removed and material was added to the SE and NE to N shoreline. In the 29 December image the cone has collapsed and in its place is an open bay, which had been closed by a new rim by the 9 January. Courtesy of BNPB, JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Sentinel-2 satellite images showing the changing morphology of Krakatau. The SW section is where the cone previously sat and collapsed in December 2018. In the upper right image the cone and southern lava delta are gone and there are changes to the coastline of the entire island. Natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) Sentinel-2 satellite images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Drone footage of the Krakatau crater and new crater rim taken on 11 January 2019. The island is coated in fresh tephra from the eruption and the orange is discolored water due to the eruption. The land between the crater lake and the ocean built up since the collapse and the hot deposits are still producing steam/gas. Courtesy of James Reynolds.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. An aerial view of Krakatau with the new crater on 13 January 2019. Courtesy of BNPB.

References. Simkin, T., and Fiske, R.S., 1983, Krakatau 1883: the volcanic eruption and its effects: Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, 464 p. ISBN 0-87474-841-0.

Sudradjat (Sumartadipura), A., 1982. The morphological development of Anak Krakatau Volcano, Sunda Straight. Geologi Indonesia, 9(1):1-11.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN ); Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI), 1 Kitasato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0811, Japan. (URL: http://www.gsi.go.jp/ENGLISH/index.html); Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG), Jl. Raya Jakarta - Bogor KM. 46 Cibinong 16911, Indonesia. (URL: http://www.big.go.id/atlas-administrasi/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 7-44-1 Jindaiji Higashi-machi, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8522 (URL: https://global.jaxa.jp/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Øystein Lund Andersen? (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: https://www.oysteinlundandersen.com/krakatau-volcano-witnessing-the-eruption-tsunami-22december2018/); James Reynolds, Earth Uncut TV (Twitter: @EarthUncutTV, URL: https://www.earthuncut.tv/, YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLKYsEXfI0PGXeKYL1KV7qA); Chris Vagasky, Vaisala Inc., Louisville, Colorado (URL: https://www.vaisala.com/en?type=1, Twitter: @COweatherman, URL: https://twitter.com/COweatherman).


Masaya (Nicaragua) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.984°N, 86.161°W; summit elev. 635 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake persists with decreased thermal output, November 2018-February 2019

Nicaragua's Volcan Masaya has an intermittent lava lake that has attracted visitors since the time of the Spanish Conquistadores; tephrochronology has dated eruptions back several thousand years. The unusual basaltic caldera has had historical explosive eruptions in addition to lava flows and an actively circulating lava lake. An explosion in 2012 ejected ash to several hundred meters above the volcano, bombs as large as 60 cm fell around the crater, and ash fell to a thickness of 2 mm in some areas of the park. The reemergence of the lava lake inside Santiago crater was reported in December 2015. By late March 2016 the lava lake had grown and intensified enough to generate a significant thermal anomaly signature which has varied in strength but continued at a moderate level into early 2019. Information for this report, which covers the period from November 2018 through February 2019, is provided by the Instituto Nicareguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) and satellite -based imagery and thermal data.

The lava lake in Santiago Crater remained visible and active throughout November 2018 to February 2019 with little change from the previous few months (figure 70). Seismic amplitude RSAM values remained steady, oscillating between 10 and 40 RSAM units during the period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. A small area of the lava lake inside Santiago Crater at Masaya was visible from the rim on 25 November 2018 (left) and 17 January 2019 (right). Left image courtesy of INETER webcam; right image courtesy of Alun Ebenezer.

Every few months INETER carries out SO2 measurements by making a transect using a mobile DOAS spectrometer that samples for gases downwind of the volcano. Transects were done on 9-10 October 2018, 21-24 January 2019, and 18-21 February 2019 (figure 71). Average values during the October transect were 1,454 tons per day, in January they were 1,007 tons per day, and in February they averaged 1,318 tons per day, all within a typical range of values for the last several months.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. INETER carries out periodic transects to measure SO2 from Masaya with a mobile DOAS spectrometer. Transects taken along the Ticuantepe-La Concepcion highway on 9-10 October 2018 (left) and 21-24 January 2019 (right) showed modest levels of SO2 emissions downwind of the summit. Courtesy of INETER (Boletín Sismos y Volcanes de Nicaragua. Octubre 2018 and Enero 2019).

During a visit by INETER technicians in early November 2018, the lens of the Mirador 1 webcam, that had water inside it and had been damaged by gases, was cleaned and repaired. During 21-24 January 2019 INETER made a site visit with scientists from the University of Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany, to measure halogen species in gas plumes, and to test different sampling techniques for volcanic gases, including through spectroscopic observations with DOAS equipment, in-situ gas sampling (MultiGAS, denuders, alkaline traps), and using a Quadcopter UAV (drone) sampling system.

Periodic measurements of CO2 from the El Comalito crater have been taken by INETER for many years. The most recent observations on 19 February 2019 indicated an emission rate of 46 +/- 3 tons per day of CO2, only slightly higher than the average value over 16 measurements between 2008 and 2019 (figure 72).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. CO2 measurements taken at Masaya on 19 February 2019 were very close to the average value measured during 2008-2019. Courtesy of INETER (Boletín Sismos y Volcanes de Nicaragua, Febrero 2019).

Satellite imagery (figure 73) and in-situ thermal measurements during November 2018-February 2019 indicated constant activity at the lava lake and no significant changes during the period. On 14 January 2019 temperatures were measured with the FLIR SC620 thermal camera, along with visual observations of the crater; abundant gas was noted, and no explosions from the lake were heard. The temperature at the lava lake was measured at 107°C, much cooler than the 340°C measured in September 2018 (figure 74).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery (geology, bands 12, 4, and 2) clearly indicated the presence of the active lava lake inside Santiago crater at Masaya during November 2018-February 2019. North is to the top, and the Santigo crater is just under 1 km in diameter for scale. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Thermal measurements were made at Masaya on 14 January 2019 with a FLIR SC620 thermal camera that indicated temperatures over 200°C cooler than similar measurements made in September 2018.

Thermal anomaly data from satellite instruments also confirmed moderate levels of ongoing thermal activity. The MIROVA project plot indicated activity throughout the period (figure 75), and a plot of the number of MODVOLC thermal alerts by month since the lava lake first appeared in December 2015 suggests constant activity at a reduced thermal output level from the higher values in early 2017 (figure 76).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Thermal anomalies remained constant at Masaya during November 2018-February 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA project. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. The number of MODVOLC thermal alerts each month at Masaya since the lava lake first reappeared in late 2015 reached its peak in early 2017 and declined to low but persistent levels by early 2018 where they have remained for a year. Data courtesy of MODVOLC.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Alun Ebenezer (Twitter: @AlunEbenezer, URL: https://twitter.com/AlunEbenezer).


Santa Maria (Guatemala) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Santa Maria

Guatemala

14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions cause steam-and-ash plumes and block avalanches, November 2018-February 2019

The dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex on the W flank of Guatemala's Santa María volcano has been growing and actively erupting since 1922. The youngest of the four vents in the complex, Caliente, has been erupting with ash explosions, pyroclastic, and lava flows for more than 40 years. A lava dome that appeared within the summit crater of Caliente in October 2016 has continued to grow, producing frequent block avalanches down the flanks. Daily explosions of steam and ash also continued during November 2018-February 2019, the period covered in this report, with information primarily from Guatemala's INSIVUMEH (Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia e Hidrologia) and the Washington VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center).

Activity at Santa Maria continued with little variation from previous months during November 2018-February 2019. Plumes of steam with minor magmatic gases rose continuously from the Caliente crater 100-500 m above the summit, generally drifting SW or SE before dissipating. In addition, daily explosions with varying amounts of ash rose to altitudes of around 2.8-3.5 km and usually extended 20-30 km before dissipating. Most of the plumes drifted SW or SE; minor ashfall occurred in the adjacent hills almost daily and was reported at the fincas located within 15 km in those directions several times each month. Continued growth of the Caliente lava dome resulted in daily block avalanches descending its flanks. The MIROVA plot of thermal energy during this time shows a consistent level of heat flow with minor variations throughout the period (figure 89).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Persistent thermal activity was recorded at Santa Maria from 6 June 2018 through February 2019 as seen in the MIROVA plot of thermal energy derived from satellite thermal data. Daily explosions produced ash plumes and block avalanches that were responsible for the continued heat flow at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.

During November 2018 steam plumes rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.2 km from Caliente summit, usually drifting SW, sometimes SE. Several ash-bearing explosions were reported daily, rising to 3-3.2 km altitude and also drifting SW or SE. The highest plume reported by INSIVUMEH rose to 3.4 km on 25 November and drifted SW. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission on 9 November that rose to 4.3 km altitude and drifted W; it dissipated within a few hours about 35 km from the summit. On 11 November another plume rose to 4.9 km altitude and drifted NW. INSIVUMEH issued a special report on 2 November noting an increase in block avalanches on the S and SE flanks, many of which traveled from the crater dome to the base of the volcano. Nearly constant avalanche blocks descended the SE flank of the dome and occasionally traveled down the other flanks as well throughout the month. They reached the bottom of the cone again on 29 November. Ashfall was reported around the flanks more than once every week and at Finca Florida on 12 November. Finca San Jose reported ashfall on 11, 13, and 23 November, and Parcelamiento Monte Claro reported ashfall on 15, 24, 25, and 27 November.

Constant degassing from the Caliente dome during December 2018 formed white plumes of mostly steam that rose to 2.6-3.0 km altitude during the month. Weak explosions averaging 9-13 per day produced gray ash plumes that rose to 2.8-3.4 km altitude. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission on 4 December that extended 25 km SW of the summit at 3.0 km altitude and dissipated quickly. Small ash plumes were visible in satellite imagery a few kilometers WNW on 8, 12, 30, and 31 December at 4.3 km altitude; they each dissipated within a few hours. Ashfall was reported in Finca Monte Claro on 1 and 4 December, and in San Marcos Palajunoj on 26 and 30 December along with Loma Linda. On 28 December ashfall on the E flank affected the communities of Las Marías, Calahuache, and El Nuevo Palmar. Block avalanches occurred daily, sending large blocks to the base of the volcano that often stirred up small plumes of ash in the vicinity (figure 90).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Activity during December 2018 at Santa Maria included constant degassing of steam plumes, weak explosions with ash plumes, and block avalanches rolling down the flanks to the base of the cone. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Diciembre 2018).

Multiple explosions daily during January 2019 produced steam-and-ash plumes (figure 91). Constant degassing rising 10-500 m emerged from the SSE part of the Caliente dome, and ashfall, mainly on the W and SW rim of the cone, was a daily feature. Seismic station STG-3 detected 10-18 explosions per day that produced ash plumes, which rose to between 2.7 and 3.5 km altitude. The Washington VAAC noted a faint ash emission in satellite imagery on 1 January that was about 25 km W of the summit at 4.3 km altitude. A new emission appeared at the same altitude on 4 January about 15 km NW of the summit. A low-density emission around midday on 5 January produced an ash plume that drifted NNE at 4.6 km altitude. Ash plumes drifted W at 4.3 km altitude on 11 and 14 January for short periods of time before dissipating.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Explosions during January produced numerous steam-and-ash plumes at the Santiaguito complex of Santa Maria. A moderate explosion on 31 January 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to about 3.1 km altitude (top). A thermal image and seismograph show another moderate explosion on 18 January 2019 that also rose nearly vertically from the summit of Caliente. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe mensual de actividad Volcanica enero 2019, Volcan Santiaguito).

Ash drifted mainly towards the W, SW, and S, causing ashfall in the villages of San Marcos Palajunoj, Loma Linda, Monte Bello, El Patrocinio, La Florida, El Faro, Patzulín and a few others several times during the month. The main places where daily ashfall was reported were near the complex, in the hilly crop areas of the El Faro and San José Patzulín farms (figure 92). Blocks up to 3 m in diameter reached the base of the complex, stirring up ash plumes that settled on the immediate flanks. Juvenile material continued to appear at the summit of the dome during January; the dome had risen above the edge of the crater created by the explosions of 2016. Changes in the size and shape of the dome between 23 November 2018 and 13 January 2019 showed the addition of material on the E and SE side of the dome, as well as a new effusive flow that travelled 200-300 m down the E flank (figure 93).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. Near-daily ashfall affected the coffee plants at the El Faro and San José Patzulín farms (left) at Santiaguito during January 2019. Large avalanche blocks descending the flanks, seen here on 23 January 2018, often stirred up smaller ash plumes that settled out next to the cone. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe mensual de actividad Volcanica enero 2019, Volcan Santiaguito).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. A comparison of the growth at the Caliente dome of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria between 23 November 2018 (top) and 13 January 2019 (bottom) shows the emergence of juvenile material and a 200-300 m long effusive flow that has moved slowly down the E flank. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe mensual de actividad Volcanica enero 2019, Volcan Santiaguito).

Persistent steam rising 50-150 m above the crater was typical during February 2019 and accompanied weak and moderate explosions that averaged 12 per day throughout the month. White and gray ash plumes from the explosions rose to 2.8-3.3 km altitude; daily block avalanches usually reached the base of the dome (figure 94). Ashfall occurred around the complex, mainly on the W, SW, and NE flanks on a daily basis, but communities farther away were affected as well. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume on 7 February in visible satellite imagery moving SW from the summit at 4.9 km altitude. The next day a new ash plume was located about 20 km W of the summit, dissipating rapidly, at 4.3 km altitude. Ashfall drifting SW affected Palajuno Monte Claro on 5, 9, 15, and 16 February. Ash drifting E and SE affected Calaguache, Las Marías and surrounding farms on 14 and 17 February, and fine-grained ash drifting SE was reported at finca San José on 21 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Activity at the Caliente dome of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria included daily ash-and-steam explosions and block avalanches descending the sides of the dome in February 2019. A typical explosion on 2 February 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to about 3 km altitude and drifted SW (left). A block avalanche on 14 February descended the SE flank and stirred up small plumes of ash in the vicinity (right, top); the avalanche lasted for 88 seconds and registered with seismic frequencies between 3.46 and 7.64 Hz (right bottom). Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 01 al 08 de febrero de 2019).

Geologic Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Reventador (Ecuador) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Reventador

Ecuador

0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Multiple daily explosions with ash plumes and incandescent blocks rolling down the flanks, October 2018-January 2019

The andesitic Volcán El Reventador lies well east of the main volcanic axis of the Cordillera Real in Ecuador and has historical eruptions with numerous lava flows and explosive events going back to the 16th century. The eruption in November 2002 generated a 17-km-high eruption cloud, pyroclastic flows that traveled 8 km, and several lava flows. Eruptive activity has been continuous since 2008. Daily explosions with ash emissions and ejecta of incandescent blocks rolling hundreds of meters down the flanks have been typical for many years. Activity continued during October 2018-January 2019, the period covered in this report, with information provided by Ecuador's Instituto Geofisico (IG-EPN), the Washington Volcano Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and infrared satellite data.

Multiple daily reports were issued from the Washington VAAC throughout the entire October 2018-January 2019 period. Plumes of ash and gas usually rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km and drifted about 20 km in prevailing wind directions before either dissipating or being obscured by meteoric clouds. The average number of daily explosions reported by IG-EPN for the second half of 2018 was more than 20 per day (figure 104). The many explosions during the period originated from multiple vents within a large scarp that formed on the W flank in mid-April (BGVN 43:11, figure 95) (figure 105). Incandescent blocks were observed often in the IG webcams; they traveled 400-1,000 m down the flanks.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. The number of daily seismic events at El Reventador for 2018 indicated high activity during the first and last thirds of the year; more than 20 explosions per day were recorded many times during October-December 2018, the period covered in this report. LP seismic events are shown in orange, seismic tremor in pink, and seismic explosions with ash are shown in green. Courtesy of IG-EPN (Informe Anual del Volcán El Reventador – 2018, Quito, 29 de marzo del 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. Images from IG's REBECA thermal camera showed the thermal activity from multiple different vents at different times during the year (see BGVN 43:11, figure 95 for vent locations). Courtesy if IG (Informe Anual del Volcán El Reventador – 2018, Quito, 29 de marzo del 2019).

Activity during October 2018-January 2019. During most days of October 2018 plumes of gas, steam, and ash rose over 1,000 m above the summit of Reventador, and most commonly drifted W or NW. Incandescence was observed on all nights that were not cloudy; incandescent blocks rolled 400-800 m down the flanks during half of the nights. During episodes of increased activity, ash plumes rose over 1,200 m (8, 10-11, 18-19 October) and incandescent blocks rolled down multiple flanks (figure 106).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Ash emissions rose over 1,000 m above the summit of Reventador numerous times during October 2018, and large incandescent blocks traveled hundreds of meters down multiple flanks. The IG-EPN COPETE webcam that captured these images is located on the S caldera rim. Courtesy of IG Daily Reports (Informe diario del estado del Volcan Reventador, numbers 2018-282, 292, 295, 297).

Similar activity continued during November. IG reported 17 days of the month with steam, gas, and ash emissions rising more than 1,000 m above the summit. The other days were either cloudy or had emissions rising between 500 and 1,000 m. Incandescent blocks were usually observed on the S or SE flanks, generally travelling 400-600 m down the flanks. The Washington VAAC reported a discrete ash plume at 6.1 km altitude drifting WNW about 35 km from the summit on 15 November. The next day, intermittent puffs were noted moving W, and a bright hotspot at the summit was visible in satellite imagery. During the most intense activity of the month, incandescent blocks traveled 800 m down all the flanks (17-19 November) and ash plumes rose over 1,200 m (23 November) (figure 107).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 107. Ash plumes rose over 1,000 m above the summit on 17 days during November 2018 at Reventador, and incandescent blocks traveled 400-800 m down the flanks on many nights. Courtesy of IG Daily Reports (Informe diario del estado del Volcan Reventador, numbers 2018-306, 314, 318, 324).

Steam, gas, and ash plumes rose over 1,200 m above the summit on 1 December. The next day, there were reports of ashfall in San Rafael and Hosteria El Hotelito, where they reported an ash layer about 1 mm thick was deposited on vehicles during the night. Ash emissions exceeded 1,200 m above the summit on 5 and 6 December as well. Incandescent blocks traveled 800 m down all the flanks on 11, 22, 24, and 26 December, and reached 900 m on 21 December. Ash emissions rising 500 to over 1,000 m above the summit were a daily occurrence, and incandescent blocks descended 500 m or more down the flanks most days during the second half of the month (figure 108).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 108. Ash plumes that rose 500 to over 1,000 m were a daily occurrence at Reventador during December 2018. Incandescent blocks traveled as far as 900 m down the flanks as well. Courtesy of IG Daily Reports (Informe diario del estado del Volcan Reventador, numbers 2018-340, 351, 353, 354, 358, 359).

During the first few days of January 2019 the ash and steam plumes did not rise over 800 m, and incandescent blocks were noted 300-500 m down the S flank. An increase in activity on 6 January sent ash-and-gas plumes over 1,000 m, drifting W, and incandescent blocks 1,000 m down many flanks. For multiple days in the middle of the month the volcano was completely obscured by clouds; only occasional observations of plumes of ash and steam were made, incandescence seen at night through the clouds confirmed ongoing activity. The Washington VAAC reported continuous ash emissions moving SE extending more than 100 km on 12 January. A significant explosion late on 20 January sent incandescent blocks 800 m down the S flank; although it was mostly cloudy for much of the second half of January, brief glimpses of ash plumes rising over 1,000 m and incandescent blocks traveling up to 800 m down numerous flanks were made almost daily (figure 109).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 109. Even during the numerous cloudy days of January 2019, evidence of ash emissions and significant explosions at Reventador was captured in the Copete webcam located on the S rim of the caldera. Courtesy of IG Daily Reports (Informe diario del estado del Volcan Reventador, number 2019-6, 21, 26, 27).

Visual evidence from the webcams supports significant thermal activity at Reventador. Atmospheric conditions are often cloudy and thus the thermal signature recorded by satellite instruments is frequently diminished. In spite of this, the MODVOLC thermal alert system recorded seven thermal alerts on three days in October, four alerts on two days in November, six alerts on two days in December and three alerts on three days in January 2019. In addition, the MIROVA system measured moderate levels of radiative power intermittently throughout the period; the most intense anomalies of 2018 were recorded on 15 October and 6 December (figure 110).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. Persistent thermal activity at Reventador was recorded by satellite instruments for the MIROVA system from 5 April 2018 through January 2019 in spite of frequent cloud cover over the volcano. The most intense anomalies of 2018 were recorded on 15 October and 6 December. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. It has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kuchinoerabujima

Japan

30.443°N, 130.217°E; summit elev. 657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak explosions and ash plumes beginning 21 October 2018

Activity at Kuchinoerabujima is exemplified by interim explosions and periods of high seismicity. A weak explosion occurred on 3 August 2014, the first since 1980, and was followed by several others during 29 May-19 June 2015 (BGVN 42:03). This report describes events through February 2019. Information is based on monthly and annual reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and advisories from the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Activity has been limited to Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater.

Activity during 2016-2018. According to JMA, between July 2016 and August 2018, the volcano was relatively quiet. Deflation had occurred since January 2016. On 18 April 2018 the Alert Level was lowered from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). A low-temperature thermal anomaly persisted near the W fracture in Shindake crater. During January-March 2018, both the number of volcanic earthquakes (generally numerous and typically shallow) and sulfur dioxide flux remained slightly above baselines levels in August 2014 (60-500 tons/day compared tp generally less than 100 tons/day in August 2014).

JMA reported that on 15 August 2018 a swarm of deep volcanic earthquakes was recorded, prompting an increase in the Alert Level to 4. The earthquake hypocenters were about 5 km deep, below the SW flanks of Shindake, and the maximum magnitude was 1.9. They occurred at about the same place as the swarm that occurred just before the May 2015 eruption. Sulfur dioxide emissions had increased since the beginning of August; they were 1,600, 1,000, and 1,200 tons/day on 11, 13, and 17 August, respectively. No surficial changes in gas emissions or thermal areas were observed during 16-20 August. On 29 August, JMA downgraded the Alert Level to 3, after no further SO2 flux increase had occurred in recent days and GNSS measurements had not changed.

A very weak explosion was recorded at 1831 on 21 October, with additional activity between 2110 on 21 October and 1350 on 22 October; plumes rose 200 m above the crater rim. During an overflight on 22 October, observers noted ash in the emissions, though no morphological changes to the crater nor ash deposits were seen. Based on satellite images and information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24-28 October ash plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.5 km and drifted in multiple directions. During a field observation on 28 October, JMA scientists did not observe any changes in the thermal anomalies at the crater.

JMA reported that during 31 October-5 November 2018, very small events released plumes that rose 500-1,200 m above the crater rim. On 6 November, crater incandescence began to be periodically visible. During 12-19 November, ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and, according to the Tokyo VAAC, drifted in multiple directions. Observers doing fieldwork on 14 and 15 November noted that thermal measurements in the crater had not changed. Intermittent explosions during 22-26 November generated plumes that rose as high as 2.1 km above the crater rim. During 28 November-3 December the plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the rim.

JMA reported that at 1637 on 18 December an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 2 km and then disappeared into a weather cloud. The event ejected material that fell in the crater area, and generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled 1 km W and 500 m E of the crater. Another weak explosion occurred on 28 December, scattering large cinders up to 500 m from the crater.

The Tokyo VAAC did not issue any ash advisories for aviation until 21 October 2018, when it issued at least one report every day through 13 December. It also issued advisories on 18-20 and 28 December.

Activity during January-early February 2019. JMA reported that at 0919 local time on 17 January 2019 an explosion generated a pyroclastic flow that reached about 1.9 km NW and 1 km E of the crater. It was the strongest explosion since October 2018. In addition, "large cinders" fell about 1-1.8 km from the crater.

Tokyo VAAC ash advisories were issued on 1, 17, 20, and 29 January 2018. An explosion at 1713-1915 on 29 January produced an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater rim and drifted E, along with a pyroclastic flow. Ash fell in parts of Yakushima. During 30 January-1 February and 3-5 February, white plumes rose as high as 600 m. On 2 February, an explosion at 1141-1300 generated a plume that rose 600 m. No additional activity during February was reported by JMA. The Alert Level remained at 3.

Geologic Background. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km west of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shintake, formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — February 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


A persistent gas-and-steam plume and intermittent ash plumes occurred from July 2018 through January 2019

Kerinci is a frequently active volcano in Sumatra, Indonesia. Recent activity has consisted of intermittent explosions, ash, and gas-and-steam plumes. The volcano alert has been at Level II since 9 September 2007. This report summarizes activity during July 2018-January 2019 based on reports by The Indonesia volcano monitoring agency, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), MAGMA Indonesia, notices from the Darwin Volcano Ash Advisory Center (Darwin VAAC), and satellite data.

Throughout this period dilute gas-and-steam plumes rising about 300 m above the summit were frequently observed and seismicity continued (figure 6). During July through January ash plumes were observed by the Darwin VAAC up to 4.3 km altitude and dispersed in multiple directions (table 7 and figure 7).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Graph showing seismic activity at Kerinci from November 2018 through February 2019. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Table 7. Summary of ash plumes (altitude and drift direction) for Kerinci during July 2018 through January 2019. The summit is at 3.5 km altitude. Data courtesy of the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) and MAGMA Indonesia.

Date Ash plume altitude (km) Ash plume drift direction
22 Jul 2018 4.3 SW
28-30 Sep 2018 4.3 SW, W
02 Oct 2018 4.3 SW, W
18-22 Oct 2018 4.3 N, W, WSW, SW
19 Jan 2019 4 E to SE
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Dilute ash plumes at Kerinci during July 2018-January 2019. Sentinel-2 natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) satellite images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Based on satellite data, a Darwin VAAC advisory reported an ash plume to 4.3 km altitude on 22 July that drifted to the SW and S. Only one day with elevated thermal emission was noted in Sentinel-2 satellite data for the entire reporting period, on 13 September 2018 (figure 8). No thermal signatures were detected by MODVOLC. On 28-29 September there was an ash plume observed to 500-600 m above the peak that dispersed to the W. Several VAAC reports on 2 and 18-22 October detected ash plumes that rose to 4.3 km altitude and drifted in different directions. On 19 January from 0734 to 1000 an ash plume rose to 200 m above the crater and dispersed to the E and SE (figure 9).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Small thermal anomaly at Kerinci volcano on 13 September 2018. False color (urban) image (band 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Small ash plume at Kerinci on 19 January 2018 that reached 200 m above the crater and traveled west. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Yasur (Vanuatu) — February 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Yasur

Vanuatu

19.532°S, 169.447°E; summit elev. 361 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption continues with ongoing explosions and multiple active crater vents, August 2018-January 2019

According to the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), which monitors Yasur, the volcano has been in essentially continuous Strombolian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774, and undoubtedly before that time. VMGD reported that, based on visual observations and seismic data, activity continued through January 2019, with ongoing, sometimes strong, explosions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists to remain outside the 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone and warned that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas influenced by trade winds.

Thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were recorded 6-15 days per month during the reporting period, sometimes with multiple pixels. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, detected numerous hotspots every month. Active crater vents were also frequently visible in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery (figure 50).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Sentinel-2 satellite color infrared image (bands 8, 4, 3) of Yasur on 17 November 2018 showing at least three distinct heat sources in the crater. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department, Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Ambae (Vanuatu) — February 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ambae

Vanuatu

15.389°S, 167.835°E; summit elev. 1496 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes and lahars in July 2018 cause evacuation of the island; intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes through January 2019

Ambae is one of the active volcanoes of Vanuatu in the New Hebrides archipelago. Recent eruptions have resulted in multiple evacuations of the local population due to ashfall. The current eruption began in September 2017, with the initial episode ending in November that year. The second episode was from late December 2017 to early February 2018, and the third was during February-April 2018. The Alert Level was raised to 3 in March, then lowered to Level 2 again on 2 June 2018. Eruptive activity began again on 1 July and produced thick ash deposits that significantly impacted the population, resulting in the full evacuation of the Island of Ambae. This report summarizes activity from July 2018 through January 2019 and is based on reports by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department (VMGD), The Vanuatu Red Cross, posts on social media, and various satellite data.

On 1 July Ambae entered a new eruption phase, marked by an ash plume that resulted in ashfall on communities in the W to NW parts of Ambae Island and the NE part of Santo Island (figure 78). On 9-10 July VMGD reported that a small eruption continued with activity consisting of ongoing gas-and-steam emissions. An observation flight on 13 July confirmed that the eruption was centered at Lake Voui and consisted of explosions that ejected hot blocks with ongoing gas-and-steam and ash emissions. Populations on Ambae and a neighboring island could hear the eruption, smell the volcanic gases, and see incandescence at night.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Ash plume at Ambae on 1 July 2018 that resulted in ashfall on the W to NW parts of the island, and on the NE part of Santo Island. Courtesy of VMGD.

On 16 July the Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume to 9.1 km that drifted to the NE. During 16-24 July daily ash plumes from the Lake Voui vent rose to altitudes of 2.3-9.1 km and drifted N, NE, E, and SE (figure 79 and 80). Radio New Zealand reported that on the 16th significant ash emission blocked out sunlight, making the underlying area dark at around 1600 local time. Much of E and N Ambae Island experienced heavy ashfall and the eruption could be heard over 30 km away. The Vanuatu Red Cross Society reported worsening conditions in the south on 24 July with ashfall resulting in trees falling and very poor visibility of less than 2 m (figures 81, 82, and 83). The Daily Post reported that by 19 July lahars had washed away two roads and other roads were blocked to western Ambae. Volcanologists who made their way to the area reported widespread damage (figure 84). The Alert Level was raised from level 2 to 3 (on a scale of 0-5) on 21 July due to an increase in ash emission and more sustained plumes, similar to March 2018 activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Ash plumes produced by the Ambae eruption in July 2018 as seen in Terra/MODIS visible satellite images. Images courtesy of NASA Worldview.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Sentinel-2 satellite image of an ash plume from Ambae in Vanuatu on 23 July 2018 with the inset showing the ash plume at the vent. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Ashfall at Ambae, posted on 25 July 2018. Courtesy of the Vanuatu Red Cross Society.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. An ash plume at Ambae in July during a day and a half of constant ashfall, looking towards the volcano. Courtesy of Michael Rowe.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Ashfall from the eruption at Ambae blocked out the sun near the volcano on 24 July 2018. Courtesy of the Vanuatu Red Cross Society.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Impacts of ashfall near Ambae in July 2018. Photos by Nicholson Naki, courtesy of the Vanuatu Red Cross (posted on 22 July 2018).

At 2100 on 26 July the ongoing explosions produced an ash plume that rose to 12 km and spread NE, E, SE. A state of emergency was announced by the Government of Vanuatu with a call for mandatory evacuations of the island. Ash emissions continued through the next day (figure 85 and 86) with two episodes producing volcanic lightning at 1100-1237 and 1522-2029 on 27 July (figure 87). The Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes up to 2.4-6.4 km, drifting SE and NW, and pilots reported heavy ashfall in Fiji. Large SO2 plumes were detected accompanying the eruptions and moving towards the E (figure 88).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Ash plumes at Ambae at 0830 and 1129 local time on 27 July 2018. The ash plume is significantly larger in the later image. Webcam images from Saratamata courtesy of VMGD.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Two ash plumes from Ambae at 1200 on 27 July 2018 as seen in a Himawari-8 satellite image. Courtesy of Himawari-8 Real-time Web.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. Lightning strokes detected at Ambae on 27 July 2018. There were two eruption pulses, 1100-1237 (blue) and 1522-2029 local time (red) that produced 185 and 87 lightning strokes, respectively. Courtesy of William A. Brook, Ronald L. Holle, and Chris Vagasky, Vaisala Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Aura/OMI data showing the large SO2 plumes produced by Ambae in Vanuatu during 22-31 July 2018. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Video footage showed a lahar blocking a road around 2 August. The government of Vanuatu told reporters that the island had been completely evacuated by 14 August. A VMGD bulletin on 22 August reported that activity continued with ongoing gas-and-steam and sometimes ash emissions; residents on neighboring islands could hear the eruption, smell volcanic gases, and see the plumes.

On 1 September at 2015 an explosion sent an ash plume to 4-11 km altitude, drifting E. Later observations in September showed a decrease in activity with no further explosions and plumes limited to white gas-and-steam plumes. On 21 September VMGD reported that the Lake Voui eruption had ceased and the Alert Level was lowered to 2.

Observed activity through October and November dominantly consisted of white gas-and-steam plumes. An explosion on 30 October at 1832 produced an ash plume that rose to 4-5 km and drifted E and SE. Satellite images acquired during July-November show the changing crater area and crater lake water color (figure 89). VMGD volcano alert bulletins on 6, 7, and 21 January 2019 reported that activity continued with gas-and-steam emissions (figure 90). Thermal energy continued to be detected by the MIROVA system through January (figure 91).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. The changing lakes of Ambae during volcanic activity in 2018. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. A steam plume at Ambae on 21 January 2019. Courtesy of VMGD.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Log radiative power MIROVA plot of MODIS infrared data at Ambae for April 2018 through January 2019 showing the increased thermal energy during the July 2018 eruption and continued activity. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The island of Ambae, also known as Aoba, is a massive 2500 km3 basaltic shield that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes (Manaro Ngoru, Voui, and Manaro Lakua) is located at the summit within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. That large central edifice is also called Manaro Voui or Lombenben volcano. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui (or Vui) about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Meteorological Service of New Zealand Ltd (MetService), PO Box 722, Wellington, New Zealand (URL: http://www.metservice.com/vaac/, http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/NZ/messages.html); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Himawari-8 Real-time Web, developed by the NICT Science Cloud project in NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology), Japan, in collaboration with JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) and CEReS (Center of Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University) (URL: https://himawari8.nict.go.jp/); Vanuatu Red Cross Society (URL: https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuRedCross); William A. Brooks and Ronald L. Holle, Vaisala Inc., Tucson, Arizona, and Chris Vagasky, Vaisala Inc., Louisville, Colorado (URL: https://www.vaisala.com/); Michael Rowe, The University of Auckland, 23 Symonds Street, Auckland, 1010, New Zealand (URL: https://unidirectory.auckland.ac.nz/profile/michael-rowe); Radio New Zealand, 155 The Terrace, Wellington 6011, New Zealand (URL: https://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/359231/vanuatu-provincial-capital-moves-due-to-volcano); Vanuatu Daily Post (URL: http://dailypost.vu/).


Agung (Indonesia) — February 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Agung

Indonesia

8.343°S, 115.508°E; summit elev. 2997 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing intermittent ash plumes and frequent gas-and-steam plumes during August 2018-January 2019

Agung is an active volcano in Bali, Indonesia, that began its current eruptive episode in September 2017. During this time activity has included ash plumes, gas-and-steam plumes, explosions ejecting ballistic blocks onto the flanks, and lava extrusion within the crater.

This report summarizes activity from August 2018 through January 2019 based on information from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), MAGMA Indonesia, the National Board for Disaster Management - Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and satellite data.

During August 2018 through January 2019 observed activity was largely gas-and steam plumes up to 700 m above the crater (figures 39 and 40). In late December and January there were several explosions that produced ash plumes up to 5.5 km altitude, and ejected ballistic blocks.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Graph showing the observed white gas-and-steam plumes and gray ash plumes at Agung during August 2018 through January 2019. The dates showing no data points coincided with cloudy days where the summit was not visible. Data courtesy of PVMBG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. A white gas-and-steam plume at Agung on 21 December 2018. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume on 8-9 August based on satellite data, webcam footage, and ground report information. The ash plume rose to 4.3 km and drifted to the W. They also reported a diffuse ash plume to 3.3 km altitude on 16-17 August based on satellite and webcam data. During September through November there were no ash plumes observed at Agung; activity consisted of white gas-and-steam plumes ranging from 10-500 m above the crater.

Throughout December, when observations could be made, activity mostly consisted of white gas-and-steam plumes up to 400 m above the crater. An explosion occurred at 0409 on 30 December that lasted 3 minutes 8 seconds produced an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km and moved to the SE and associated incandescence was observed at the crater. Light Ashfall was reported in the Karangasem regency to the NE, including Amlapura City and several villages such as in Seraya Barat Village, Seraya Tengah Village, and Tenggalinggah Village (figure 41).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. A webcam image of an explosion at Agung that began at 0409 on 30 December 2018. Light Ashfall was reported in the Karangasem regency. Courtesy of PVMBG.

White gas-and-steam plumes continued through January 2019 rising as much as 600 m above the crater. Several Volcano Observatory Notices for Aviation (VONAs) were issued during 18-22 January. An explosion was recorded at 0245 on 19 January that produced an ash plume to 700 m above the crater and ejected incandescent blocks out to 1 km from the crater. On 21 January another ash plume rose to an estimated plume altitude of 5.1 km. The next morning, at 0342 on the 22nd, an ash plume to an altitude of 2 km that dispersed to the E and SE.

Satellite data shows continued low-level thermal activity in the crater throughout this period. MIROVA thermal data showed activity declining after a peak in July, and a further decline in energy in September (figure 42). Low-level thermal activity continued through December. Sentinel-2 thermal data showed elevated temperatures within the ponded lava in the crater (figure 43).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Log radiative power MIROVA plot of MODIS infrared data for May 2018 through January 2019 showing thermal anomalies at Agung. The black data lines indicate anomalies more than 10 km from the crater, which are likely due to fires. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing areas of elevated temperatures within the lava ponded in the Agung crater during August 2018 through January 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks extend to the coast. The summit area extends 1.5 km E-W, with the high point on the W and a steep-walled 800-m-wide crater on the E. The Pawon cone is located low on the SE flank. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded in historical time. The 1963-64 eruption, one of the largest in the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall along with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Erebus (Antarctica) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Erebus

Antarctica

77.53°S, 167.17°E; summit elev. 3794 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lakes persist through 2017 and 2018

Between the early 1980's through 2016, activity at Erebus was monitored by the Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO), using seismometers, infrasonic recordings to measure eruption frequency, and annual scientific site visits. MEVO recorded occasional explosions propelling ash up to 2 km above the summit of this Antarctic volcano and the presence of two, sometimes three, lava lakes (figure 26). However, MEVO closed in 2016 (BGVN 42:06).

Activity at the lava lakes in the summit crater can be detected using MODIS infrared detectors aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites and analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm. A compilation of thermal alert pixels during 2017-2018 (table 4, a continuation of data in the previous report) shows a wide range of detected activity, with a high of 182 alert pixels in April 2018. Although no MODVOLC anomalies were recorded in January 2017, detectors on the Sentinel-2 satellite imaged two active lava lakes on 25 January.

Table 4. Number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels recorded per month from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2018 for Erebus by the University of Hawaii's thermal alert system. Table compiled by GVP from data provided by MODVOLC.

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec SUM
2017 0 21 9 0 0 1 11 61 76 52 0 3 234
2018 0 21 58 182 55 17 137 172 103 29 0 0 774
SUM 0 42 67 182 55 18 148 233 179 81 0 3 1008
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Sentinel-2 images of the summit crater area of Erebus on 25 January 2017. Top: Natural color filter (bands 4, 3, 2). Bottom: Atmospheric penetration filter (bands 12, 11, 8A) in which two distinct lava lakes can be observed. The main crater is 500 x 600 m wide. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. The 3794-m-high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of the dominantly phonolitic volcano has been modified by one or two generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3200 m elevation marks the rim of the youngest caldera, which formed during the late-Pleistocene and within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity with minor explosions, punctuated by occasional larger strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim, has been documented since 1972, but has probably been occurring for much of the volcano's recent history.

Information Contacts: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Villarrica (Chile) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Villarrica

Chile

39.42°S, 71.93°W; summit elev. 2847 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent Strombolian activity ejects incandescent bombs around crater rim, September 2018-February 2019

Historical eruptions at Chile's Villarrica, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. An intermittently active lava lake at the summit has been the source of explosive activity, incandescence, and thermal anomalies for several decades. Sporadic Strombolian activity at the lava lake and small ash emissions have continued since the last large explosion on 3 March 2015. Similar continuing activity during September 2018-February 2019 is covered in this report, with information provided primarily by the Southern Andes Volcano Observatory (Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur, OVDAS), part of Chile's National Service of Geology and Mining (Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, SERNAGEOMIN), and Projecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), part of the Fundacion Volcanes de Chile, a research group that studies volcanoes across Chile.

After ash emissions during July 2018 and an increase in of thermal activity from late July through early September 2018 (BGVN 43:10), Villarrica was much quieter through February 2019. Steam plumes rose no more than a few hundred meters above the summit and the number of thermal alerts decreased steadily. Intermittent Strombolian activity sent ejecta a few tens of meters above the summit crater, with larger bombs landing outside the crater rim. A small pyroclastic cone appeared at the surface of the lava lake, about 70 m below the rim, in November. The largest lava fountain rose 35 m above the crater rim in late January 2019.

Steam plumes rose no more than 300 m above the crater during September 2018 and were less than 150 m high in October; incandescence at the summit was visible during clear nights, although a gradual decrease in activity suggested a lowering of the lake level to SERNAGEOMIN. SERNAGEOMIN attributed an increase in LP seismic events from 1,503 in September to 5,279 in October to dynamics of the lava lake inside the summit crater; counts decreased gradually in the following months.

POVI reported webcam evidence of Strombolian activity with ejecta around the crater several times during November 2018. On 5 November the webcam captured an image of an incandescent bomb, more than a meter in diameter, that landed on the NW flank. The next day, explosions sent ejecta 50 m above the edge of the crater, and pyroclastic debris landed around the perimeter. Significant Strombolian explosions on 16 November sent incandescent bombs toward the W rim of the crater (figure 71). The POVI webcam in Pucón captured incandescent ejecta landing on the crater rim on 23 November. POVI scientists observed a small pyroclastic cone, about 10-12 m in diameter, at the bottom of the summit crater on 19 November (figure 72); it was still visible on 25 November.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Strombolian activity at the summit of Villarrica was captured several times in the POVI webcam located in Pucón. An explosion on 5 November 2018 ejected a meter-sized bomb onto the NW flank (left). On 16 November, incandescent bombs were thrown outside the W rim of the crater (right). Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. A small pyroclastic cone was visible at the bottom of the summit crater at Villarrica (about 70 m deep) on 19 November 2018 (left); it was still visible on 25 November (right). Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

During December 2018 webcam images showed steam plumes rising less than 350 m above the crater. Infrasound instruments identified two small explosions related to lava lake surface activity. SERNAGEOMIN noted a minor variation in the baseline of the inclinometers; continued monitoring indicated the variation was seasonal. A compilation by POVI of images of the summit crater during 2018 showed the evolution of the lava lake level during the year. It had dropped out of sight early in the year, rose to its highest level in July, and then lowered slightly, remaining stable for the last several months of the year (figure 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Evolution of the lava pit at Villarrica during 2018. During July the lava lake level increased and for November and December no significant changes were observed. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

Between 25 December 2018 and 15 January 2019, financed with funds contributed by the Fundación Volcanes de Chile, POVI was able to install new HD webcams with continuous daily image recording, greatly improving the level of detail data available of the activity at the summit. POVI reported that after a five-week break, Strombolian explosions resumed on 3 January 2019; the lava fountains rose 20 m above the crater rim, and pyroclastic ejecta fell to the E. On 24 January the Strombolian explosions ejected ash, lapilli, and bombs up to 15 cm in diameter; the lava fountain was about 35 m high.

An explosion on 7 February reached about 29 m above the crater's edge; on 9 February a lava fountain three meters in diameter rose 17 m above the crater rim. Sporadic explosions were imaged on 12 February as well (figure 74). During a reconnaissance overflight on 24 February 2019, POVI scientists observed part of the lava pit at the bottom of the crater (figure 75). As of 28 February they noted a slight but sustained increase in the energy of the explosions. SERNAGEOMIN noted that steam plumes rose 400 m in January and 150 m during February, and incandescence was visible on clear nights during both months.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Strombolian activity at Villarrica in January and February 2019 was imaged with a new HD webcam on several occasions. On 24 January 2019 explosions ejected ash, lapilli, and bombs up to 15 cm in diameter; the lava fountain was about 35 m high (left); on 12 February 2019 explosions rose about 19 m above the crater rim (right). Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. During a reconnaissance overflight on 24 February 2019, POVI scientists observed part of the lava pit at the bottom of the crater at Villarrica; gas and steam emissions and incandescence from small explosions were noted. Courtesy of POVI (Volcán Villarrica, Resumen Gráfico del Comportamiento, November 2017 a Febrero 2019).

Geologic Background. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI) (URL: http://www.povi.cl/).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 42, Number 06 (June 2017)

Managing Editor: Edward Venzke

Bezymianny (Russia)

Lava dome extrusion December 2016-April 2017; large ash explosion on 9 March 2017

Chirinkotan (Russia)

Intermittent ash plumes and thermal anomalies June 2013-April 2017, site visit by Russian scientists, August 2015

Dukono (Indonesia)

Frequent explosive eruptions and ash plumes through March 2017

Erebus (Antarctica)

Phonolitic lava lakes remain active during 2011-2016

Fuego (Guatemala)

Ten eruptive episodes with lava flows, ash plumes, and pyroclastic flows during January-June 2016

Nyamuragira (DR Congo)

Large SO2 plumes and intermittent lava lake during 2013-2017

Reventador (Ecuador)

Lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and ash plumes monthly during June 2014-December 2015

Ruiz, Nevado del (Colombia)

Intermittent ash emissions July 2012-December 2015; increased thermal activity October-December 2015

Turrialba (Costa Rica)

Persistent explosions and ash emissions during 2015 and 2016

Unnamed (Tonga)

Plumes of discolored water seen in satellite imagery during 23-28 January 2017



Bezymianny (Russia) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Bezymianny

Russia

55.972°N, 160.595°E; summit elev. 2882 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava dome extrusion December 2016-April 2017; large ash explosion on 9 March 2017

The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) characterized Bezymianny as having weak activity from mid-June 2014 through the end of 2015, including weak or moderate gas-and-steam emissions (figures 17 and 18) and, when not obscured by clouds, weak thermal anomalies (BGVN 41:01). Observations here through May 2017 come from KVERT reports and Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) advisories.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. View of the summit showing fumarolic activity at Bezymianny on 16 September 2014. Photo by Yu. Demyanchuk; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Moderate gas-and-steam activity at Bezymianny on 15 April 2015. Photo by Yu. Demyanchuk; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Activity during 2016. KVERT reported that weak volcanic activity continued into January 2016, with moderate gas-and-steam activity through 12 December 2016. During this time, satellite data by KVERT showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on most days, although on some days KVERT described the volcano as "quiet." Often the volcano was obscured by clouds.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted E, an observation based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP). Weak fumarolic activity continued in late August (figure 19).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. A small, weak, fumarolic plume could be seen rising from Bezymianny on 24 August 2016. Photo by O. Girina; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Based on KB GS RAS (Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Services, Russian Academy of Sciences) data, KVERT noted that seismicity began to increase on 18 November. The thermal anomaly temperature detected in satellite images also increased on 5 December, and then significantly increased on 13 December, probably caused by lava-dome extrusion. This activity prompted KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code from Yellow, where it had been since 17 July 2014, to Orange (second highest level).

According to KVERT, a gas-and-steam plume containing a small amount of ash drifted about 118 km W on 15 December. The Tokyo VAAC noted that ash plumes rose as high as 6.1 km that same day. KVERT reported strong gas-and-steam emissions during 16-31 December (figure 20); a gas-and-steam plume drifted about 60 km SW on 18 December. A daily thermal anomaly was detected over the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. A strong gas-and-steam plume was seen rising from Bezymianny on 19 December 2016. Photo by V. Buryi; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Activity during January-May 2017. According to KVERT, lava-dome extrusion likely continued into January 2017. Strong gas-and-steam emissions continued through 19 January 2017 and a thermal anomaly was detected over the volcano during most days. On 12 January, KVERT noted that activity had gradually decreased after an intensification during 5-24 December 2016, and thus the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Thereafter, KVERT characterized the volcano as having moderate gas-steam activity. On 23 February, KVERT reported that the effusive eruption continued and that lava was flowing on the S flank of the lava dome.

On 9 March at about 1330, an explosive eruption occurred (figure 21). Based on webcam observations, at 1454 an ash plume rose to altitudes of 6-7 km and drifted 20 km NE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. About 30 minutes later, at 1523, an ash plume rose to altitudes of 7-8 km and drifted 60 km NW. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest level. Satellite data showed a 14-km-wide ash plume drifting 112 km NW at an altitude of 7 km. Later that day a 274-km-long ash plume identified in satellite images drifted NW at altitudes of 4-4.5 km; the majority of the leading part of the plume contained a significant amount of ash. Lava flowed down the NW part of the lava dome. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Ash plumes drifted as far as 500 km NW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. The start of an explosive eruption from Bezymianny was captured in this image taken from a webcam video on 9 March 2017. Video from KB GS RAS; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

KVERT reported that lava continued to advance down the NW flank of the lava dome during 10 March-21 April, and gas-and-steam plumes rose from the crater. A thermal anomaly was visible most days in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 25 May. According to a KVERT report on 26 May, the volcano became quiet after the 9 March episode, although strong gas-and-steam emissions and daily thermal anomalies continued.

Thermal anomalies. Thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were almost daily events during January through 2 November 2016, except none were reported in March through 19 May 2016. On many days, multiple pixels were reported (13 pixels on 1 September). The number of events diminished in December (only six days), and except for a brief period during 9-12 March 2017, none were reported after 20 December through at least 26 May 2017.

The Mirova (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, reported several hotspots each month during May-August 2016, with a significant increase in September through early November (figure 22). Numerous hotspots were again reported in December, but only a few in January and February, except for a narrow cluster during the middle of February. In contrast to the MODIS/MODVOLC data, numerous hotspots were reported in March, April, and May 2017. The vast majority of hotspots during the past 12 months were within 5 km of the volcano and were of low power.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Thermal anomalies at Bezymianny recorded by the MIROVA system (log radiative power) for the year ending 5 May 2017. Note stronger frequent activity in the second half of December 2016 and the stronger anomalies associated with the March 2017 activity. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny had been considered extinct. The modern volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral edifice built about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service, Russian Academy of Sciences (KB GS RAS) (URL: http://www.emsd.ru/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Chirinkotan (Russia) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Chirinkotan

Russia

48.98°N, 153.48°E; summit elev. 724 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash plumes and thermal anomalies June 2013-April 2017, site visit by Russian scientists, August 2015

The remote island of Chirinkotan is in the Northern Kuril Islands at the southern end of the Sea of Okhotsk, about 320 km SW of the tip of Kamchatka, Russia. It is an outlier about 40 km NW of the main Kuril Islands Arc. There have been very few historical observations of activity at Chirinkotan, although there is at least one confirmed 19th century observation of lava flows. A short-lived event that resulted in a small, low-level ash plume-and-gas plume was seen in satellite imagery on 20 July 2004 (Neal et al., 2005). Volcanic activity resumed in mid-2013, with intermittent ash plumes, thermal anomalies, and block lava flows reported through April 2017. The volcano is monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) of the Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics (Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science), and aviation alerts are issued by the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

A new eruptive phase began with a likely ash emission on 11 June 2013. Intermittent thermal anomalies and gas-and-steam emissions were reported for the next 12 months, sometimes drifting up to 100 km, usually SE. Renewed thermal anomalies and gas emissions were recorded during clear weather beginning on 21 November 2014. Two ash plumes observed in late July 2015 were the likely sources of fresh ashfall and block lava flows sampled during a visit by Russian geoscientists on 9 August 2015. A gas-and-steam plume on 17 November 2015 was the last activity observed, except for low-level thermal anomalies, until a substantial ash plume was captured in satellite data at 8.8 km altitude over a year later on 29 November 2016. Additional ash plumes were observed in satellite data once in late January, and twice each in March and April 2017.

Activity during May 2013-June 2014. After no reports of activity since July 2004, SVERT observed gas-and-steam emissions in satellite imagery beginning in late May 2013. They raised the Alert Level from Green to Yellow (on the four level Green-Yellow-Orange-Red scale) sometime between 27 May and 10 June. The first likely ash emission was reported on 11 June, followed by a thermal anomaly detected on 13 June. Thermal anomalies continued to be detected by SVERT during June and July 2013. The first MODVOLC thermal alert was reported on 22 July; they were reported monthly after that through 11 December 2013, with several days of multiple-pixel alerts. SVERT also noted thermal anomalies and gas-and-steam emissions during August through December, including plumes drifting 30-60 km SE during 17-19 October, 55-100 km SE during 5-6 November, and more than 50 km SE on 25 November.

From the beginning of January 2014 through early June, persistent thermal anomalies were observed in clear imagery nearly every week by SVERT, along with intermittent steam-and-gas emissions. Several times during March, plumes were observed drifting 80-170 km SE. MODVOLC thermal alerts were reported on 8 February, 4 days in March (four pixels on 8 March), and twice on 27 May. SVERT reported that beginning on 24 May, gas emissions containing ash were detected in satellite images. A decrease in thermal anomalies observed by SVERT led them to lower the Alert Level to Green on 5 June 2014.

Activity during November 2014-July 2015. SVERT raised the Alert Level back to Yellow in late November 2014, citing new thermal anomalies beginning on 21 November followed by intermittent steam-and-gas emissions. A plume was observed drifting 40 km SE on 27 November. A new MODVOLC thermal alert appeared on 4 December. SVERT reported thermal anomalies and diffuse gas-and-steam plumes during December 2014 and January-February 2015. Emissions were detected 3 km above Chirinkotan drifting SE on 5 January 2015. MODVOLC reported two thermal alert pixels on 7 January and one on 10 January.

SVERT briefly lowered the Alert Level to Green between 4 and 20 March when no activity was detected. Thermal anomalies were reported again beginning on 19 March; they were noted weekly along with intermittent gas-and-steam emissions through mid-May when the Alert Level was lowered back to Green again on 19 May.

MODVOLC reported a three-pixel thermal alert on 20 July 2015 (local time). The Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption on 21 July (local time) with an ash plume rising to 3.7 km altitude drifting SE. The plume was observed in satellite imagery for about 2 hours before dissipating. SVERT reported a thermal anomaly and steam-and-gas emissions on 22 July, and the Alert Level was raised to Yellow. Another ash plume was reported by the Tokyo VAAC on 26 July rising to an altitude of 4.6 km and drifting NW for several hours before dissipating.

Expedition during August 2015. Scientists from the Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics (IMGiG) of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences visited Chirinkotan on 9 August 2015. While there, they observed steaming from a recent blocky lava flow near the coast (figure 3), hiked to the summit, and collected data about volcanic and biological activity on the island. A group of researchers climbed to the edge of the summit crater at 600 m elevation, where clouds prevented clear views of the crater (figure 4), however the strong odor of sulfur and noise from fumarolic activity was noted. The scientists sampled the fresh pyroclastic rocks. When the visibility improved, the depth of the crater was observed to be about 150 m; an extrusive dome in the center had a vent on the top emitting gas.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Steam rising from recent lava flow at Chirinkotan that reached the coastline, 9 August 2015. Courtesy of IMGiG (Diary of the Kurils 2015 Expedition, 7-9 August 2015, http://imgg.ru/ru/news/111 ).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Fieldwork at the summit crater rim of Chirinkotan, 9 August 2015. Courtesy of IMGiG. (Diary of the Kurils 2015 Expedition, 7-9 August 2015, http://imgg.ru/ru/news/111 ).

The upper flank of the volcano was strewn with ash and bombs (from 2-3 cm to several meters in diameter). Scientists observed recently buried and charred living vegetation, and nesting birds freshly killed by volcanic ash and bombs, indicating a very recent event (figure 5). The botanists in the research group noted that all of the vegetation on the upper and middle flanks had been killed 2-3 years ago in a major event, likely during the start of the 2013 eruptive cycle. Ash deposits ranged in thickness from a few centimeters near the coast to 8-15 cm near the summit. During a survey of a pyroclastic flow on the SW coast, scientists noted that it was still hot on the surface (40-60°?) and consisted of block lava, bombs, and volcanic ash (figure 6).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Evidence of recent explosive activity at Chirinkotan. Top: recently burned vegetation from a volcanic bomb on the flank. Bottom: living vegetation buried in recent volcanic ash, 9 August 2015. Courtesy of IMGiG (Diary of the Kurils 2015 Expedition, 7-9 August 2015, http://imgg.ru/ru/news/111 ).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Still-hot debris from a block lava flow on Chirinkotan, 9 August 2015. Courtesy of IMGiG (Diary of the Kurils 2015 Expedition, 7-9 August 2015, http://imgg.ru/ru/news/111 ).

Activity during November 2015-April 2017. As a result of the direct observations of the recent eruption on the island, SVERT raised the Alert Level to Orange on 11 August 2015. There were no further reports available from SVERT until 17 November when gas-and-steam emissions were detected, and the Aviation Color Code was reported as Yellow. SVERT reported on 7 December 2015 that the ACC had been lowered to Green. Although SVERT did not report renewed activity from Chirinkotan until it issued a VONA on 29 November 2016 and raised the Alert Level to Yellow, the MIROVA thermal anomaly detection system indicated intermittent low-level anomalies between late May and early October 2016 (figure 7), indicating a heat source on the island.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. MIROVA data of Log Radiative Power at Chirinkotan for the year ending on 31 January 2017 showing a weak but persistent thermal anomaly between late May and early October 2016. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The Tokyo VAAC issued a report of a volcanic ash plume from an eruption on 29 November (local time) 2016. The plume rose to 8.8 km altitude and drifted N. It was observed in satellite imagery for about 9 hours before dissipating. SVERT briefly raised the ACC to Yellow between 29 November and 2 December. They noted that the ash plume was observed drifting 39 km N. A new report of ash emissions came from the Tokyo VAAC on 26 January 2017, with an ash plume at 3.7 km drifting SE observed in the Himawari-8 satellite imagery. SVERT raised the alert level to Yellow on 27 January (UTM) 2017 and also noted ash emissions on 29 January drifting SE to a maximum distance of 105 km. They lowered the Alert Level to Green on 1 February 2017.

A new ash plume was observed by the Tokyo VAAC on 1 March (local time) 2017 at an altitude of 5.5 km. When SVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow on 2 March, they noted that the plume had drifted 165 km E. They lowered the ACC back to Green on 6 March. The Tokyo VAAC reported a new ash plume at 6.1 km extending SE early on 21 March 2017. SVERT reported the emission at 15 km E of the volcano when they raised the ACC to Yellow a short while later. They noted on 24 March, when they lowered the ACC to Green, that the maximum extent of the ash cloud had been about 50 km SE.

On 31 March 2017, the Tokyo VAAC issued an advisory for an ash plume at 6.7 km altitude drifting E, and SVERT raised the Alert Level to Yellow the next day. They reported the ash plume drifting 165 km NE before dissipating. Another plume on 7 April was observed by the Tokyo VAAC at 3.7 km altitude drifting SE. SVERT reported the plume at 5 km altitude drifting NE. SVERT lowered the ACC to Green on 24 April 2017.

Reference: Neal C A, McGimsey R G, Dixon J, Melnikov D, 2005. 2004 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Rpt, 2005-1308: 1-67.

Geologic Background. The small, mostly unvegetated 3-km-wide island of Chirinkotan occupies the far end of an E-W volcanic chain that extends nearly 50 km W of the central part of the main Kuril Islands arc. It is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises 3000 m from the floor of the Kuril Basin. A small 1-km-wide caldera about 300-400 m deep is open to the SW. Lava flows from a cone within the breached crater reached the shore of the island. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century. Lava flows were observed by the English fur trader Captain Snow in the 1880s.

Information Contacts: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Nauki st., 1B, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia, 693022 (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/en/, http://www.imgg.ru/ru/svert/reports); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, (FEB RAS IMGiG), 693 022 Russia, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, ul. Science 1B (URL: http://imgg.ru/ru); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Dukono (Indonesia) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Dukono

Indonesia

1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent explosive eruptions and ash plumes through March 2017

Eruptive activity at Dukono has continued since 1933. As previously reported, ash explosions were frequently observed, and thermal anomalies were intermittent, from September 2011 through July 2014 (BGVN 39:06). Similar activity has continued through March 2017. Monitoring is conducted by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM) from an observation post 11 km away. The Alert Level has remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with residents and tourists advised to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.

PVMBG reported that in March-April 2015 seismicity remained high and consisted of explosion signals, volcanic earthquakes, and tremor, accompanied by roaring heard at the observation post. A powerful explosion on 23 May 2015 was followed by minor ashfall in areas to the E. During 1-5 July 2015 white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 600 m; minor ashfall was reported in northern areas on 1 July. Ashfall was reported in areas from the Galela District to Tobelo town (NNW) in August 2015 and at the observation post in September. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, with elevated periods during 15-22 August, 28 August-5 September, and 15-25 October 2015.

As summarized by PVMBG, the period from 1 January to 19 December 2016 exhibited white-and-gray plumes rising as high as 1.2 km above the rim of the Malupang Warirang crater, accompanied by roaring heard at the observation post. The eruption plume height generally fluctuated though, was higher during periods in May and from late November into December; ashfall increased during the periods of higher plume heights, and was noted in villages within 11 km N, NE, and SW. Seismicity remained high.

Nearly daily aviation advisories from the Darwin VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre) since July 2014 confirmed the PVMBG reports. As identified in satellite imagery, white and gray ash plumes were seen rising to altitudes of 1.5-4 km from the Malupang Warirang crater, and drifting in various directions for tens to hundreds of kilometers. Data compiled from VAAC reports and summarized by month for April 2016-March 2017 (table 15) reveal plume altitudes between 1.5 and 3.7 km with visible drift distances up to 300 km away.

Table 15. Monthly summary of reported ash plumes from Dukono for April 2016-March 2017. The direction of drift for the ash plume was highly variable. Data from Darwin VAAC and PVMBG.

Month Plume Altitude (km) Plume Drift (km)
Apr 2016 2.1-3 55-250
May 2016 2.1-2.7 65-185
Jun 2016 1.9-2.4 55-130
Jul 2016 1.8-2.4 110-225
Aug 2016 1.5-3.3 130-280
Sep 2016 1.8-3 160-250
Oct 2016 2.1-2.4 215-225
Nov 2016 2.1-3.7 --
Dec 2016 1.7-3 55-305
Jan 2017 1.8-2.7 120-300
Feb 2017 1.8-2.4 120
Mar 2017 1.5-2.7 150

Intermittent thermal anomalies, typically single pixels, were recorded by MODVOLC (table 16) in the months of April and June 2014, January-March 2015, December 2015, and November 2016. MODIS thermal data recorded by the MIROVA system during the year of April 2016-March 2016 (figure 6) showed intermittent low-power anomalies in May and August 2016, and then in every month from October 2016 through March 2017. It should be noted that the MODIS satellite thermal sensors cannot penetrate cloud cover, which is frequent over Dukono much of the year.

Table 16. Thermal anomalies at Dukono based on MODIS data processed by MODVOLC, August 2014-March 2017. Courtesy of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Date (UTC) Time (UTC) Pixels Satellite
28 Apr 2014 1410 1 Terra
01 Jun 2014 1655 1 Aqua
13 Jun 2014 1715 1 Aqua
14 Jan 2015 1725 1 Aqua
18 Jan 2015 1700 1 Aqua
20 Jan 2015 1645 2 Aqua
21 Jan 2015 1730 2 Aqua
22 Jan 2015 1340 1 Terra
23 Jan 2015 0200 1 Terra
23 Jan 2015 2317 4 Aqua
25 Jan 2015 1705 1 Aqua
01 Feb 2015 1415 1 Terra
01 Feb 2015 1710 1 Aqua
30 Mar 2015 1705 1 Aqua
31 Dec 2015 1345 1 Terra
04 Nov 2016 1700 1 Aqua
Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Thermal anomalies (Log Radiative Power) detected by MODIS and recorded by the MIROVA system for year ending 5 April 2017. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Vistors to the crater in March 2016 photographed ash rising form an incandescent vent (figure 7). Patrick Marcel reported that "the vents at the bottom of the crater emitted a sustained, extremely noisy jet of gas, steam and ash, and ejected incandescent bombs to up to 500 m height. Some of them landed outside the crater rim." The "You&MeTraveling2" blog posted a trip journal that described a late-August 2016 visit to Dukono, including photos and a video looking down into the crater that showed activity similar to that seen by Marcel in March 2016.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. View into Dukono's crater on 12 March 2016. Photo by Patrick Marcel (color adjusted from original); courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); You&MeTraveling2 (URL: http://youandmetraveling2.com/).


Erebus (Antarctica) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Erebus

Antarctica

77.53°S, 167.17°E; summit elev. 3794 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Phonolitic lava lakes remain active during 2011-2016

The existence of an anorthoclase phonolite lava lake in the summit crater of Mount Erebus was first reported in 1972, and it has been thought to be continuously active since that time. Antarctica's best known volcano is located on Ross Island, 90 km E of the continent, offshore of the Scott Coast. McMurdo station, run by the United States Antarctic Program, is about 40 km S on the tip of Ross Island (figure 16). During the history of observations, lava lake(s) have generally persisted, although changes in size and shape over time reflect variations in volcanic activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. On 31 December 2013, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired visible near-infrared images of the western end of Ross Island in austral mid-summer. McMurdo Station is about 40 km S of the summit of Mount Erebus. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

This report briefly summarizes research activity at Mount Erebus, and volcanic activity observed since 1972. Photographs from expeditions between 2010 and 2016 show more recent activity at the volcano. Observations from MODVOLC data collected from 2000 through 2016 are also discussed.

Summary of research activity. For most years since the 1970's, scientists have visited Erebus during the austral summer (November-February) and gathered samples, taken SO2 and other geochemical measurements, collected GPS data, and made observations and overflights to evaluate the condition of the volcano.

Seismometers were initially installed by a joint project of United States, New Zealand, and Japanese scientists in 1980-1981. Between 1980 and 2016 as many as 10 seismic stations were recording activity at Erebus; they were monitored by the Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) run by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexico Tech). During the early 2000s MEVO also used infrasonic recordings to capture data on the frequency of eruptions. Researchers from New Mexico Tech, the University of Cambridge, and University College London made yearly expeditions there between 2003 and 2016.

The Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory closed in 2016. A final report was submitted to the National Science Foundation (NSF) on the past research and ideas for future research (Mattioli and LaFemina, 2016), and includes a comprehensive list of scientific publications about Erebus. One area of ongoing volcanology research relates to studying the behavior of the lava lake with a variety of on-site monitoring equipment (figure 17).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Radar altimeter installed at the crater rim of Erebus in December 2016. There are two dishes, to both transmit and receive data. Several other devices are seen in the background, all trained on the lava lake on the floor of the crater. Courtesy of the University of Cambridge Department of Geography.

Summary of activity, 1972-2009. During the 1970's, the lava lake was observed to be about 130 m long and oval shaped, producing occasional Strombolian explosions. Bombs up to 10 m in in diameter were ejected near the vent, and ones up to 30 cm in diameter were thrown out over the main crater. Oscillations of the lake level of up to 2 m were observed.

During a period of increased activity between September 1984 and January 1985, several large explosions were recorded by the seismic network, and there were reports of mushroom-shaped clouds rising as much as 2 km above the summit. During September 1984, numerous large explosions sent ejecta as high as 600 m above the summit, and incandescence was visible from 70 km away. Ash also covered the NW flank down to 3,400 m elevation. Observations in October 1984 indicated that much of the lava lake had solidified, and that the surface was covered with ejecta from the recent explosions. Seismicity remained above average through January 1985. During this period of increased activity, bombs averaging 2 m in diameter (but some as large as 10 m in diameter) were ejected up to 1.2 km from within the inner crater. The eruptions were witnessed from 60 km away and explosions could be heard up to 2 km from the volcano (SEAN 11:03). A small lava lake about 15 m in diameter reappeared late in 1985.

Two primary lakes of phonolitic lava, and a third transient lake, were present inside the crater during the late 1980s (see figure 9, SEAN 13:02), and infrequent Strombolian eruptions with small bombs were captured by a remote video camera mounted on the crater rim. Small ash eruptions were observed from an active vent near the lava lakes in January 1991. On 19 October 1993, two moderate phreatic eruptions created a new crater ~80 m in diameter on the main crater floor and ejected debris over the northern crater rim. These were the first known phreatic eruptions at Erebus, and probably resulted from steam build-up associated with melting snow in the crater (BGVN 20:11).

Vent and lava lake eruptions were recorded by MEVO during the late 1990s and early 2000s. The largest peaks in terms of numbers of eruptions were during 1995, 1997, 1998, 2000, and a broad peak beginning in late 2005 that continued into late 2006 (BGVN 31:12).

Activity during 2010-2016. The two primary lava lakes remained active at Erebus. The one in the NE sector of the inner crater has been persistent almost continuously since first reported in 1972. The second lake is more in the center of the main crater and is intermittently active. During a visit in 2010, only the NE sector lake was active (BGVN 36:09). During clear weather, a steady steam plume is often observed (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Mount Erebus with a steam plume rising from the summit crater, viewed from the Lower Erebus Hut (LEH), 6 December 2010. Courtesy of Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory.

Visits during 2011-2016 have confirmed the ongoing Strombolian activity and convection at the lava lakes nearly every year. During 2011 the glowing lava lake emitted steam and magmatic gases from the bottom of a vent at the main crater (figure 19). An eruption on 2 January 2012 at the lava lake was captured by the remote video cameras managed by MEVO (figure 20). Several bombs were ejected on 18 December 2013 and landed close to monitoring equipment run by MEVO. Researchers were able to open a hot bomb and see the molten interior (figure 21).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. The lava lake at Erebus, photographed in December 2011. Image by Clive Oppenheimer/Volcanofiles; courtesy of Erik Klemetti.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. An eruption from the lava lake at Erebus, captured on the MEVO video cameras on 2 January 2012. Courtesy of MEVO and Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Several bombs erupted from Erebus on 18 December 2013 and landed close to monitoring equipment run by MEVO. Researchers were able to open a hot bomb and see the molten interior. Images courtesy of Aaron Curtis, MEVO, 18 December 2013 (posted on Facebook).

When UNAVCO (a non-profit university-governed consortium) flew over Erebus in December 2015, steam and magmatic gas plumes indicated that both lava lakes were active (figure 22). The two incandescent crater vents at were observed in greater detail during January 2016 by researchers associated with the University of Cambridge (figure 23).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. The crater of Erebus, with active steam plumes from two lava lakes on 7 December 2015, photographed during an overflight by UNAVCO (a non-profit university-governed consortium). Photo by Annie Zaino, UNAVCO (posted on Facebook).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Two lava lakes at Erebus were observed on 14 January 2016 by researchers associated with the University of Cambridge. Lower image is a close-up of the right vent in the upper image. Courtesy of Kayla Iacovino and Tehnuka Ilanko (posted on Facebook).

MODVOLC data, 2000-2016. With the remoteness of Erebus, satellite imagery serves as one of the few year-round tools currently available to assess longer-term activity. The University of Hawaii's MODVOLC thermal alert system has been processing MODIS infrared satellite data since 2000. Mount Erebus has had a strong and nearly continuous MODVOLC signature throughout 2000-2016 (table 3), confirming its ongoing eruptive activity.

Table 3. Number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels recorded per month from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016 by the University of Hawaii's thermal alert system for Erebus. Table compiled by GVP from data provided by MODVOLC. Spurious data from 25 October 2014 was omitted.

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec SUM
2000 0 6 16 3 10 7 8 12 7 4 1 0 74
2001 2 16 90 70 78 24 70 71 57 30 1 5 514
2002 1 19 53 71 96 133 148 122 188 62 28 28 949
2003 19 41 103 125 168 231 195 213 121 62 30 19 1327
2004 40 48 143 90 131 279 133 288 113 67 39 131 1502
2005 125 98 217 158 159 212 256 191 209 91 30 21 1767
2006 12 27 78 89 131 85 145 30 39 36 11 32 715
2007 18 42 142 268 243 178 184 199 118 98 10 33 1533
2008 91 116 199 267 286 180 269 458 149 148 95 141 2399
2009 86 114 386 162 436 270 341 208 253 116 76 66 2514
2010 53 58 207 132 185 154 89 100 142 62 10 2 1194
2011 3 23 81 112 36 1 1 0 4 25 0 0 286
2012 0 24 52 56 31 93 27 1 1 0 0 0 285
2013 0 1 11 11 11 20 56 85 28 19 0 1 243
2014 2 1 0 9 49 62 78 10 28 3 0 1 243
2015 1 17 14 4 15 2 7 12 2 3 0 0 77
2016 0 4 13 34 46 33 19 1 3 0 0 0 153
SUM 453 655 1805 1661 2111 1964 2026 2001 1462 826 331 480

The MODVOLC thermal alert data show that thermal activity at Erebus has waxed and waned several times during the 2000-2016 interval (figure 24). Activity was very low during 2000, but increased steadily through mid-2005 to more than 20 times as many annual thermal alert pixels since 2000. Activity dropped off substantially from late 2005 and remained low through early 2007, when another increase began that peaked at an even higher level (2514 pixels during 2009) in mid-2009. Another drop in activity occurred during 2010, and since 2011 there have been fewer than 300 pixels per year, with numbers below 200 for 2015 and 2016.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. The number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels per year, colored by month, reported for Erebus from 2000 through 2016. Activity was very low during 2000, but increased steadily through mid-2005. Activity dropped off substantially from late 2005 through early 2007, when another increase began that peaked at an even higher level in mid-2009. Another drop in activity occurred during 2010, and since 2011, there have been fewer than 300 pixels per year. Data courtesy of MODVOLC.

Another trend in the MODVOLC data is also apparent when the number of pixels are plotted by month, as opposed to year, for this time period (figure 25). From November through February, during the austral summer, the number of pixels per month never exceeds 150 (see table 3, highest value is 125). From March through October, during the Austral winter, the number of pixels recorded per month can be much higher (the highest value is 458). The average number of 'summer' pixels per month (November-February, 2000-2016) is 30. The average number of 'winter' pixels per month for the same period (March-October) is 108, more than three times greater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. The number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels per month for the period 2000-2016, colored by year. The total average number of pixels per month from 1 March through 31 October (1732) is three times the average total number of pixels per month from 1 November through 28 February (480). Data courtesy of MODVOLC.

References: Mattioli, G.S., and LaFemina, P.C., 2016, Final Report submitted to the National Science Foundation, Community Workshop: "Scientific Drivers and Future of Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO)" (URL: https://www.unavco.org/community/meetings-events/2016/mevo/2016-MEVO-Final-Report.pdf)

Geologic Background. Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. The 3794-m-high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of the dominantly phonolitic volcano has been modified by one or two generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3200 m elevation marks the rim of the youngest caldera, which formed during the late-Pleistocene and within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity with minor explosions, punctuated by occasional larger strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim, has been documented since 1972, but has probably been occurring for much of the volcano's recent history.

Information Contacts: Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801, USA; Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); The University of Cambridge Department of Geography (URL: http://www.geog.cam.ac.uk/research/projects/lavalakes/); Erik Klemetti, Eruptions Blog, Wired (URL: https://www.wired.com/author/erikvolc/); Tom Pfeiffer, Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); UNAVCO, 6350 Nautilus Drive, Boulder, CO 80301-5394 (URL: http://www.unavco.org/); Kayla Iacovino and Tehnuka Ilanko, The Volcanofiles (URL: http://www.volcanofiles.com/).


Fuego (Guatemala) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ten eruptive episodes with lava flows, ash plumes, and pyroclastic flows during January-June 2016

Volcán de Fuego has been erupting continuously since 2002. Historical observations of eruptions date back to 1531, and radiocarbon dates are confirmed back to 1580 BCE. These eruptions have resulted in major ashfalls, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and damaging lahars. Fuego was continuously active from June 2014-December 2015. Ash plumes rose to 6 km altitude, ashfall was reported in communities as far as 90 km away, pyroclastic flows descended multiple drainages at least four times, Strombolian activity rose to 800 m above the summit, lava flows descended a few kilometers down five different drainages numerous times, and three different lahars damaged roadways (BGVN 42:05). This report continues with a summary of similar activity during January-June 2016. In addition to regular reports from INSIVUMEH, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) provides aviation alerts. Locations of towns and drainages are listed in table 12 (BGVN 42:05).

Daily weak and moderate explosions generating ash plumes to about 800 m above the summit (4.6 km altitude) that dissipated within about 10 km were typical activity for Fuego during January-June 2016. In addition, ten eruptive episodes were recorded during this time. Each episode lasted 24-72 hours, with all but one including incandescent material rising 200-400 m above the summit feeding lava flows down the larger drainages for several kilometers. Most also included pyroclastic flows down the larger drainages. One of the episodes consisted of only large pyroclastic eruptions (with an accompanying ash plume) that issued directly from the summit crater and down the ravines; all included ash plumes rising over 5 km in altitude. Several lahars were reported during late April-June.

Activity during 30 December 2015. INSIVUMEH reported a significant increase in activity on 30 December 2015. A series of pyroclastic flows descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on the SE flank, and a dense ash plume rose to 5 km altitude and drifted 20 km W. Ashfall was reported in multiple communities on the flanks, including Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Santa Sofía (12 km SW).

Activity during January 2016. Two eruptive episodes with explosions that generated ash plumes, pyroclastic flows, Strombolian activity, lava flows, and ashfall were documented by INSIVUMEH during January 2016. The first eruption began with an increase in seismicity early in the morning of 3 January. Moderate to strong explosions were accompanied by an ash plume that rose to 4.8 km altitude (about 1 km above the summit) and drifted W and SW. Two lava flows emerged from the summit crater and traveled down the Las Lajas and Trinidad ravines. Moderate to strong explosions continued during 3 January. By the afternoon, dense plumes of ash were reported at 6 km altitude drifting SW and SE more than 40 km. Ashfall was reported in the villages of Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, La Rochela, Osuna, El Zapote and Rodeo. Also later in the day, incandescence was observed 400 m above the crater; it fed three lava flows in the Santa Teresa, Trinidad, and Las Lajas canyons that reached 2.5 km in length. Eruptive activity diminished after about 37 hours with weak bursts of ash rising to 4.6-4.7 km altitude on 5 January that drifted S, SW, and SE.

A smaller explosive event during 15-17 January produced block avalanches and created ash plumes that rose 450-750 m above the crater and drifted up to 12 km N and NE; four to five explosions per hour were detected. The second eruptive episode began with increased activity on 19 January; incandescent material was ejected 400-500 m above the summit, generating new lava flows to the same three canyons as the earlier eruption (Santa Teresa, Trinidad and Las Lajas) (figure 36). Ash emissions rose to 4.9 km altitude and drifted NE. Pyroclastic flows also descended the Las Lajas and El Jute canyons (figure 37).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Lava flows towards Las Lajas Canyon on 19 January 2016 as viewed from the SE flank. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH-OVFGO (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, January 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. A pyroclastic flow descends towards the Las Lajas and El Jute ravines on the SE flank of Fuego on 19 January 2016 in this thermal image captured by INSIVUMEH. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, January 2016).

The second episode continued throughout 20 January 2016 when the largest ash plume rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted NE more than 90 km according to the Washington VAAC. Ashfall was reported in San Miguel, Las Dueñas, Alotenango, Acatenango, and Antigua. Ash plumes from the pyroclastic flows also generated ashfall on the S and SW flanks (figure 38). By the morning of 21 January, the lava flows had ceased advancing at about 3 km length, although a hot spot was still clearly visible in satellite imagery. Weak explosions generated ash plumes that rose only a few hundred meters above the summit and drifted NNE. During January, the Observatorio del Volcan de Fuego installed a second webcam on the SE side of Fuego at the Finca La Reunión, a resort about 8 km from the summit. The first webcam is located about 10 km SW of the summit at the Observatorio del Volcan de Fuego in the community of Panimache.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. A pyroclastic flow on 20 January 2016 travels down the SE flank of Fuego, creating an ash cloud in the ravine. Additional ash emissions drifted in multiple directions. A recent lava flow is also visible in the ravine. View is from the La Reunión webcam, 8 km SE of the summit. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, January 2016).

Activity during February-March 2016. Explosions increased in number and energy on 5 February 2016, classified by INSIVUMEH as the 3rd episode of the year. Six moderate to strong explosions per hour were reported, sending ash emissions to 4.5 km altitude, drifting W, NW, and N more than 12 km, and avalanche blocks down the flanks to the base. The third eruptive episode of the year began with moderate explosions on 9 February 2016; it generated ash plumes which rose to 4.7 km altitude and dispersed up to 35 km NNW. Ashfall was reported in Chimaltenango, Zaragoza, Ciudad Vieja, San Pedro las Huertas, San Miguel Las Dueñas, San Juan Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala and the Capital City as far as 35 km N and NE. The explosions were accompanied by incandescent material rising to 300 m above the summit and feeding lava flows that traveled towards the Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Santa Teresa canyons, reaching lengths of 800 to 3,000 meters (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Incandescence rises 300 m above the crater at Fuego, generating lava flows down the Trinidad, Las Lajas and Santa Teresa canyons on 9 February 2016. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Febrero 2016).

The following day (10 February 2016), pyroclastic flows descended the El Jute and Las Lajas ravines (figure 40) while ash plumes rose to 5.2 km altitude and incandescent material was ejected 400 m above the crater. Although activity decreased throughout the day, explosions continued to generate ash plumes to 4.9 km altitude that dispersed ash up to 45 km N and NE. Minor ash emissions were reported by the Washington VAAC on 17 February at 4.6-4.9 km altitude drifting SE about 40 km, and on 24 February at 4.6 km drifting about 25 km SW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Pyroclastic flows descend the Las Lajas and El Jute ravines at Fuego on 10 February 2016 as viewed from the webcam at Finca la Reunión, 8 km SE. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Febrero 2016).

On 29 February 2016, moderate to strong explosions at a rate of 6-10 per hour were heard more than 14 km away. They were accompanied by an ash plume that rose to 4.8 km and drifted 12 km E, and a lava flow that traveled 500 m towards Las Lajas ravine. This 4th eruptive episode (according to INSIVUMEH) lasted more than 72 hours (figure 41). On 2 March, several ash plumes rose to different altitudes and dispersed in different directions. The largest ash plume, was observed by the Washington VAAC at 7.3 km altitude; it was visible 400 km N before it dissipated into weather clouds. Lower altitude plumes rose to 4.6 km and drifted 75 km SW before dissipating. Ash fell in the communities of Morelia, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, Panimaché I and II, Sangre de Cristo, La Soledad and Yepocapa. The incandescent activity fed two lava flows; the first in the direction of Las Lajas reached 3 km, the second flowed towards El Jute ravine and reached 2 km in length. Pyroclastic flows also travelled down these two canyons and block avalanches descended the Honda Canyon. Explosive activity diminished during 3-6 March; ash emissions rose to 550 m above the summit and drifted 8-10 km W, SE, and SE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. RSAM values spiked at Fuego during 29 February-3 March 2016 during eruptive episode 4. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Marzo 2016).

During 10 March 2016, moderate to strong Vulcanian explosions generated an ash plume that rose to 4.4 km altitude and drifted E. The Washington VAAC observed ash emissions in multispectral satellite imagery on 15 March at 4.3 km altitude extending about 80 km SW from the summit as well as hot spots and pyroclastic flows visible in the INSIVUMEH webcam. An increase in activity on 21 March generated weak and moderate explosions that produced ash plumes that rose to 4.3-4.7 km and drifted W. This activity was recorded as an increase in RSAM tremor amplitude and duration at the FG3 seismic station, but was not considered an eruptive episode by INSIVUMEH (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Increases in RSAM tremor amplitude and duration at Fuego were recorded during 21 and 22 March, and eruptive episode 5 was recorded during 26 and 27 March 2016. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Marzo 2016).

Eruptive episode 5 began on 26 March 2016 and lasted more than 24 hours (figure 42). Strombolian eruptions rose up to 500 m above the crater (figure 43), feeding three lava flows that traveled 2 km down Las Lajas, 1.3 km down the Santa Theresa, and 1 km down the Trinidad ravines. Ash plumes rose to 6.1 km altitude and drifted up to 150 km W (figure 44); ash fell on the villages of Morelia, Santa Sofia, San Predro Yepocapa, Panimaché I and II. By the end of 27 March, eruptive activity had diminished to background conditions, which included weak and moderate explosions generating ash plumes to about 800 m above the summit (4.6 km altitude) that dissipated within about 10 km WSW. On 29 March ashfall was reported Sangre de Cristo and Panimaché I and II.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Strombolian activity rises 300 m above the crater at Fuego on 26 March 2016. Photo by Gustavo Chigna, courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Marzo 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. An ash plume at Fuego rose to over 6 km altitude on 26 March 2016 and drifted 150 km W before dissipating. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Marzo 2016).

Activity during April-May 2016. The Washington VAAC reported diffuse volcanic ash emissions in satellite and webcam imagery on 2 April 2016. The ash plume drifted W at 4.3 km altitude, and extended 75 km from the summit before dissipating. Increased eruptive activity during 6-7 April 2016 resulted in moderate and strong explosions which produced ash plumes rising to 4.6-4.8 km altitude that drifted W and SW 15 km. The explosions were audible more than 20 km from the volcano; roofs and windows vibrated within 12 km. INSIVUMEH received reports of ashfall from the villages of Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and Panimche I and II.

An explosion on 8 April created an ash plume that rose to 5.8 km and drifted SSW about 35 km. Successive bursts of ash on 9 April rose to 4.9 km altitude and drifted W. Emissions on 11 April were reported at 4.3 km altitude about 15 km SW from the summit; the next day they rose to 4.9 km and drifted SW to a distance of 45 km. INSIVUMEH reported variable activity beginning on 11 April with high levels of explosive activity on 12 April marking the beginning of the sixth eruptive episode of the year, which lasted for three days. An incandescent fountain persisted 100-300 m above the crater and fed two lava flows during the event; one traveled 2 km down the Las Lajas ravine, and the other reached 1 km in length in the Santa Teresa ravine. Avalanches were constant along the flanks during this episode. Continuous ash emissions were observed as well; plumes generally rose no higher than 5.8 km (2 km above the summit). Ashfall was reported in La Rochela, Ceylon, Morelia, Hagia Sophia, Sangre de Cristo, Panimaché I and II. On 13 April the ash plume extended 185 km SW from the summit. A brilliant hotspot was observed in satellite imagery on 14 April after which no further VAAC reports were issued until early May. On 29 April, after more than a week of rain, a lahar descended the Las Lajas drainage but no damage was reported.

Activity at Fuego increased significantly during May 2016, and included three eruptive episodes that generated ash plumes, pyroclastic and lava flows, and increased rainfall that resulted in lahars. Ash plumes rose above 5.5 km altitude (more than 2 km above the summit) and dispersed to the S, SW, and SE. Seismic activity increased on 5 May in the form of internal vibrations caused by lava which flowed more than 1.2 km down the Las Lajas ravine, and moderate to strong explosions that produced ash plumes which rose to 4.8 km altitude and drifted S for 12 km. The Washington VAAC reported diffuse ash extending 65 km SE from the summit.

The 7th eruptive episode of the year began on 6 May 2016 with incandescent material rising 300 m above the summit crater, causing two lava flows. One traveled down Las Lajas ravine more than 3 km; the second descended the Trinidad ravine for 1.5 km. Block avalanches were constant around the crater rim. The episode lasted for more than 32 hours (figure 45); the moderate to strong explosions ejected ash to altitudes above 5.5 km that drifted S and SW. Ashfall was reported in Escuintla and its surroundings. There were no pyroclastic flows during this episode. The Washington VAAC reported emissions extending 65 km SE of the summit at 5 km altitude on 6 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. RSAM values during 2 May-6 June 2016 helped INSIVUMEH to define eruptive episodes for 2016 at Fuego, along with observed activity. Eruptive episode 7, consisting of Strombolian activity, lava flows, and ash plumes, occurred during 6-7 May 2016. Episode 8 comprised ash plumes and several large pyroclastic flows that descended the S flank during 18 and 19 May, but no seismic explosive activity. Increases in explosive activity on 21 May marked the beginning of episode 9, which lasted through 23 May 2016 and included incandescent fountains, lava flows, and ash plumes. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Mayo 2016).

The next eruptive episode (8) did not involve seismic explosive activity (figure 45). Instead, several large pyroclastic flows overflowed the crater rim on 18 and 19 May 2016 and descended the flanks towards Las Lajas and Honda ravines (figure 46) resulting in ashfall reported to the S, SW, and W, in villages more than 30 km away. A large ash plume reached more than 5.5 km altitude and drifted 15 km SSW on 19 May (figure 47). Ashfall was reported in the villages of El Rodeo, La Rochela, Osuna, Panimaché, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. By late in the day, the Washington VAAC noted that the plume was centered about 90 km SW at 5.8 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. A pyroclastic flow descends Las Lajas ravine on the S flank of Fuego on 18 May 2016 in these images taken from Finca La Reunión. Lower photo by Basilo Sul, both images courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Mayo 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. An ash plume drifts SW from Fuego on 19 May 2016 after a series of pyroclastic flows and ash emissions sent ash plumes to over 5 km altitude. The Operational Land Imager instrument on Landsat 8 captured this image. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

The ninth eruptive episode of 2016 generated incandescent fountains 200-300 m above the summit; they fed a 2-km-long lava flow down the Las Lajas ravine (figure 48). Seismic activity began to increase on 21 May and lasted through 23 May (see figure 45). Moderate and strong explosions created an ash plume that rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted SW and W. The Observatory reported ashfall in Morelia, El Porvenir, Santa Sofia, Los Yucales, Panimaché I and II. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 5.5 km altitude, drifting 75 km S beyond the coast on 23 May 2016. A lahar descended the Las Lajas ravine on 20 May and was recorded by the seismic station FG3, but no damage was reported.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Landsat band 7 (top) and band 10 (bottom) images of the still-cooling lava flow in Las Lajas ravine at Fuego on 26 May 2016. Courtesy of Rudiger Escobar, Michigan Technological University and INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Mayo 2016).

Activity during June 2016. A significant rainfall combined with the plentiful ash from recent pyroclastic flows, resulted in lahars descending Las Lajas and El Jute ravines on 5 June 2016. They transported blocks, branches, and tree trunks, and a strong sulfur smell was reported by nearby residents. Another lahar was reported on 18 June that was 15 m wide and had a 1.5-m-high front. An increase in seismic activity during the afternoon of 24 June signaled the beginning of eruptive episode 10. This was followed by about 30 hours of moderate to strong explosive activity that could be heard and felt as far as 12 km away. A dense ash plume on 25 June rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted S, SW, and W more than 40 km. Ashfall was reported in San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Panimaché I and II. The Washington VAAC observed the ash plume in multispectral imagery on 25 June extending 120 km WSW from the summit. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center captured a small but distinct SO2 plume from Fuego on 25 June as well (figure 49). Incandescent material rose 300 m above the summit crater during this episode and fed three lava flows; the first descended Las Lajas ravine 2.5 km, the second traveled 2.3 km down El Jute ravine, and the third flowed down Taniluyá ravine for 600 meters. Seismic activity from episode 10 decreased on 26 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. A small but distinct SO2 anomaly was measured from Fuego on 25 June 2016. INSIVUMEH reported the 10th eruptive episode of the year during that time with a dense ash plume and lava flows emerging from the summit crater. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Nyamuragira (DR Congo) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyamuragira

DR Congo

1.408°S, 29.2°E; summit elev. 3058 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Large SO2 plumes and intermittent lava lake during 2013-2017

The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is part of the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). Nyamuragira (or Nyamulagira), a high-potassium basaltic shield volcano on the W edge of VVP, includes a lava field that covers over 1,100 km2 and contains more than 100 flank cones in addition to a large central crater (see figure 54, BGVN 40:01). A large lava lake that had been active for many years emptied from the central crater in 1938. Numerous flank eruptions have been observed since that time, the last during November 2011-March 2012 on the NE flank. This report covers the substantial SO2 emissions from both Nyamuragira and nearby Nyiragongo (15 km SE) between November 2011 and April 2016, and the onset of eruptive activity, including a new lava lake, at the summit crater beginning in May 2014. Activity is described through April 2017.

On-the-ground information about Nyamuragira is intermittent due to the unstable political climate in the region, but some information is available from the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), MONUSCO (the United Nations Organization working in the area), geoscientists who study Nyamuragira, and travelers who visit the site. The most consistent data comes from satellite – thermal data from the MODIS instrument processed by the MODVOLC and MIROVA systems, SO2 data from the AURA instrument on NASA's OMI satellite, and NASA Earth Observatory images from a variety of satellites.

A substantial flank eruption took place from November 2011 through March 2012. This was followed by a period of degassing with SO2-rich plumes, but no observed thermal activity, from April 2012 through April 2014. Increased seismicity and minor thermal activity was observed at the central crater during April 2014; lava fountains first seen in early July 2014 continued through September. A lava lake in the crater was confirmed on 6 November 2014, and it produced a consistent and strengthening thermal anomaly through the first week of April 2016, when it stopped abruptly. Thermal activity suggesting reappearance of the lava lake began again in early November 2016, and strengthened in both frequency and magnitude into early January 2017, continuing with a strong signal through April 2017.

Activity during November 2011-March 2012. Nyamuragira erupted from cones and fissures on the NE flank between early November 2011 and mid-March 2012 (BGVN 39:03). The vent area, 12 km ENE of the central crater, was an E-W fissure 500-1,000 m long. Lava fountains up to 300 m high produced flows that advanced nearly 12 km N in the first 10 days. Three scoria cones formed adjacent to the fissure during the eruption, and a small lava lake appeared in the center of the largest cone. During January 2012, lava flowed from the vent area and from numerous small breakouts within 2 km of the cones (figures 58, 59). Dario Tedesco reported that the eruptions ceased in March 2012 after a series of explosion earthquakes recorded by the OVG had ended; the last MODVOLC thermal alert in the area of the eruption was captured on 14 March 2012, and none were reported again until 2014.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Lava fountain and active lava flow emerging from the breach of the erupting flank cone of Nyamuragira volcano on 8 January 2012. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Lava fountains around 150 m high erupt on 8 January 2012 from the active flank vent during the 2011-2012 eruption of Nyamuragira. Photo by Lorraine Field, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

Activity during April 2012-May 2014. Periodic field surveys at Nyamuragira have been carried out since 2009 by helicopter, thanks to the support of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (MONUSCO). Since 2013, observations of the crater have also been done once or twice a month by helicopter. The team has included researchers from the OVG, Dario Tedesco, and other international scientists. This area is a high-risk sector due to the presence of armed groups, and it is impossible, due to the lack of security, to make detailed field surveys (Coppola et al., 2016).

Dario Tedesco reported SO2-rich fumaroles in Nyamuragira's central crater beginning in early March 2012, shortly before the NE-flank fissure eruptions ended (BGVN 40:01). A progressive collapse of the 400-m-wide, 50-80 m deep pit crater located in the NE part of the caldera began as soon as the eruptions ended. They noted that during the second half of April, large SO2 plumes continuously emerged from the pit crater.

NASA's Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring program captured major SO2 plumes from the area for an extended period between November 2011 and February 2014. The plumes represent combined emissions from both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo, which are too close together to distinguish the source in the satellite data. Campion (2014), however, noted that SO2 emissions from the VVG increased several fold after the end of the 2011-2012 Nyamuragira eruption; they interpreted that 60-90 % of these emissions should be attributed to Nyamuragira.

Significant areas of SO2 plumes with DU > 2 (shown as red pixels on the Aura/OMI images, figure 60) were captured by the OMI instrument at the beginning of the November 2011 eruption and continued through February 2012. Beginning in April 2012 elevated values occurred more than 20 days per month through December 2012. Values were more variable in both frequency and magnitude during 2013 with a notable surge of activity during 6-19 June 2013 that resulted in daily SO2 plumes. Details of monthly SO2 values are given in the last section of this report (see table 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Large SO2 plumes from Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo between November 2011 and December 2013. Four of the dates correspond to the Maximum DU days for that month (see table 3), and two represent other days of the month with substantial plumes. Courtesy of NASA/GSFC.

Activity during June 2014-April 2017. Incandescence at the summit and increased seismicity was reported again in April 2014, along with increasing SO2 values. A strong MODVOLC thermal alert signal appeared on 22 June 2014, and a satellite image from 30 June showed clear hotspots at both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo (figure 61).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. Hot spots from both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo on 30 June 2014. This false-color image combines shortwave-infrared, near-infrared, and green light as red, green, and blue, respectively. Since shortwave- and near- infrared light penetrates hazy skies better than visible light, more surface detail is visible in this image than would be in natural-color. Because very hot surfaces glow in shortwave-infrared, the lava within both summit craters appear bright red. The dark lava flows spreading from Nyamuragira were erupted within the past 50 years, some as recently as 2012. Vegetation is bright green. The image was collected by Landsat 8. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

An extended series of MIROVA thermal anomaly data beginning in May 2014 clearly shows the episodic periods of active heat flow at Nyamuragira from late May 2014 through April 2017 (figure 62). During the first episode, from late May to early September 2014, lava fountains were observed in early July, and reported to be active through September (BGVN 40.01). Campion (2014) and Smets and others (2014) debated whether the lava lake first appeared in April or not until November. On 6 November 2014 a small lava lake was confirmed at the base of the summit pit when sighted during an OVG helicopter survey. Both MODVOLC and MIROVA thermal anomalies appeared again in early November and persisted through the end of the year.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. MIROVA thermal anomaly data from Nyamuragira from May 2014 through April 2017. Vertical black bar on each chart show the ending date of the previous chart. Chart "A" was previously published (BGVN 40:01, figure 57); other charts were captured via Volcano Discovery, Erik Klemetti, and Culture Volcan. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Thermal anomalies were persistent throughout 2015, with a noted increase in both frequency and magnitude during July (figure 62 C). A NASA Earth Observatory image from 9 February 2015 clearly shows active plumes venting from both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo (figure 63). MONUSCO-supported summit crater visits by researchers on 2 April 2015, and photographer Oliver Grunwald on 10 July 2015, confirmed the presence of an active lava lake during both visits (figure 64, and video link in Information Contacts).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. On 9 February 2015, clear skies afforded an unobstructed view from space of plumes venting from both Nyamuragira (north) and Nyiragongo (south) volcanoes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The lower image shows a close-up view of Nyamuragira, which is topped with a small caldera with walls about 100 m high. In 1938, a lava lake within the caldera drained during a large, long-lasting fissure eruption that sent lava flows all the way to Lake Kivu. Satellite observations and helicopter overflights in 2014 confirmed that the caldera again contained a small but vigorous lava lake. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. An active lava lake at Nyamuragira crater on 2 April 2015. Courtesy of MONUSCO/Abel Kavanagh (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/monusco/17118082715/).

The MIROVA and MODVOLC thermal anomaly data suggest that the lava lake at Nyamuragira was active until 4 April 2016 when the signals abruptly ended (figure 62 D). This also corresponds closely in time to when the major SO2 emissions captured by NASA also ceased. Observations by Dario Tedesco at the summit on 6 April 2016, during a UNICEF and MONUSCO-sponsored helicopter overflight, showed only an incandescent vent releasing hot gases, and no active lava lake. A small lava lake was again visible in the pit crater on 27 April 2016 when observed by Sebastien Valade of the University of Florence on another MONUSCO-sponsored flight (figure 65).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Nyamuragira's pit crater with a small lava lake observed on 27 April 2016; volcanologist Sebastien Valade takes thermal measurements from the rim. Photo by Abel Kayanagh/MONUSCO. Courtesy of MONUSCO via Culture Volcan.

Thermal anomaly data from MIROVA suggest a pulse of activity during late April through early June 2016 (figure 62 D). This was followed by a period from early June through early November 2016 with no record of activity at Nyamuragira. The MIROVA signal reappeared in early November, followed by intermittent MODVOLC thermal alerts beginning on 27 November. A new pulse of thermal activity, with values similar to those observed during July 2015-April 2016, reappeared in early January 2017 (figure 62 E) and continued through April 2017. On an OVG-sponsored visit to the summit crater on 11 March 2017, independent journalist Charly Kasereka photographed the summit crater with incandescent lava covering the crater floor (figure 66).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Effusive activity at the bottom of the summit crater of Nyamuragira on 11 March 2017. Additional image available at https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/2017/04/quelques-nouvelles-des-volcans.html shows minor spattering of molten lava near the vent on the crater floor. Photo by Charly Kasereka; courtesy of Cultur Volcan.

Sulfur dioxide and thermal anomaly data. Abundant sulfur dioxide emissions at Nyamuragira during November 2011-April 2017 show large variations in both magnitude and frequency during the period (table 3). A plot of the SO2 data (figure 67) reveals a sharp increase in both the number of days per month with DU greater than 2 and the actual maximum DU value during the active flank eruption between November 2011 and February 2012. After lower values during March 2012, they rise steadily and remain significantly elevated for all of 2013. Values drop briefly in early 2014 and then rise again during April 2014, remaining elevated through February 2016 before dropping off significantly.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Sulfur dioxide data for Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo, October 2011 through April 2017. Blue bars represent the number of days each month where DU > 2 was captured in the Aura/OMI data (left axis). The orange points represent the highest DU value for the months where SO2 emissions had DU values > 2 for at least one day. See table 3 for details of Dobson Units (DU), and text for discussion of values. The two volcanos are less than 20 km apart, and thus the individual sources of SO2 cannot be distinguished in the satellite data.

A similar plot of the number of monthly MODVOLC thermal alert pixels for Nyamuragira from November 2011 through April 2017 (figure 68) shows that there were no thermal alerts for the period from April 2012-February 2014 when SO2 emissions were large and frequent. In contrast, there were frequent thermal alerts from June 2014-April 2016 when SO2 emissions were also high.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels per month at Nyamuragira from October 2011 through April 2017. Data courtesy of MODVOLC.

Table 3. Days per month that SO2 values over the Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo area exceeded 2 Dobson Units (DU), October 2011-April 2017, and maximum DU values for each month. Data represent minimum values due to OMI row anomaly missing data (gray stripes), and missing days. SO2 is measured over the entire earth using NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the AURA spacecraft. The gas is measured in Dobson Units (DU), the number of molecules in a square centimeter of the atmosphere. If you were to compress all of the sulfur dioxide in a column of the atmosphere into a flat layer at standard temperature and pressure (0 C and 1013.25 hPa), one Dobson Unit would be 0.01 millimeters thick and would contain 0.0285 grams of SO2 per square meter.

MONTH No. days DU > 2 MAX DU (>2) Date of Max DU Comments
Oct 2011 0 -- -- --
Nov 2011 23 80.23 9 --
Dec 2011 27 26.70 30 --
Jan 2012 16 7.71 8 Only 21 days of data
Feb 2012 10 5.32 18 --
Mar 2012 2 2.22 31 --
April 2012 9 5.31 27 Daily >2 values begin ~ 20 April
May 2012 20 27.06 8 Surge, 5-10 May
Jun 2012 24 67.10 7 Large plumes all month
Jul 2012 25 15.91 9 --
Aug 2012 17 14.27 28 --
Sep 2012 24 12.78 11 Several days DU>10
Oct 2012 24 16.86 31 Constant large plumes
Nov 2012 27 21.09 1 Many high DU values
Dec 2012 26 16.69 16 --
Jan 2013 11 6.80 10 --
Feb 2013 7 14.34 2 --
Mar 2013 14 6.15 22 --
Apr 2013 15 8.93 16 --
May 2013 16 11.45 25 --
Jun 2013 22 29.68 10 Big surge 6-14
Jul 2013 18 11.82 12 --
Aug 2013 14 6.11 29 --
Sep 2013 20 9.46 25 --
Oct 2013 16 4.45 28 --
Nov 2013 12 6.76 10 --
Dec 2013 18 17.79 14 --
Jan 2014 3 4.13 27 --
Feb 2014 2 5.18 10 --
Mar 2014 3 4.86 11 --
Apr 2014 10 6.49 10 --
May 2014 0 -- -- --
Jun 2014 14 18.24 29 Surge begins 24 June
Jul 2014 23 27.40 24 Large plumes most of the month
Aug 2014 23 23.65 25 --
Sep 2014 12 158.92 10 Big surge begins late Aug – 13 Sep, then stops abruptly. Largest plumes of interval
Oct 2014 0 -- -- --
Nov 2014 11 17.86 29 6-11, 23, 27-30
Dec 2014 26 22.82 22 1-27
Jan 2015 8 6.96 18 --
Feb 2015 15 23.73 19 --
Mar 2015 19 8.56 28 --
Apr 2015 23 17.80 29 --
May 2015 25 10.78 10 --
un 2015 25 17.74 25 --
Jul 2015 18 11.95 18 --
Aug 2015 17 9.32 19 --
Sep 2015 18 9.51 4 --
Oct 2015 18 9.61 31 --
Nov 2015 17 7.06 16 --
Dec 2015 14 8.42 13 --
Jan 2016 6 5.40 19 --
Feb 2016 6 3.34 11 --
Mar 2016 1 4.15 9 --
Apr 2016 0 -- -- --
May 2016 2 3.06 19 --
Jun 2016 0 -- -- Only 18 days data
Jul 2016 0 -- -- --
Aug 2016 0 -- -- --
Sep 2016 0 -- -- --
Oct 2016 0 -- -- --
Nov 2016 2 3.50 27 --
Dec 2016 0 -- -- --
Jan 2017 0 -- -- --
Feb 2017 No Data No Data -- --
Mar 2017 0 1.5 -- --
Apr 2017 0 1.5 -- --

References: Campion, R., 2014, New lava lake at Nyamuragira volcano revealed by combined ASTER and OMI SO2 measurements, 7 November 2014, Geophysical Research Letters (URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL061808/full).

Coppola, D., Campion, R., Laiolo, M., Cuoco, E., Balagizi, C., Ripepe, M., Cigolini, C., Tedesco, D., 2016, Birth of a lava lake:Nyamulagira volcano 2011-2015. Bull Volcanol (2016) 78: 20. doi:10.1007/s00445-016-1014-7.

Smets, B., d'Oreye, N., Kervyn, F., 2014, Toward Another Lava Lake in the Virunga Volcanic Field?, 21 October 2014, EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union (URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014EO420001/pdf)

Smets, B., d'Oreye, N., Kervyn, F., Kervyn, M., Albino, F., Arellano, S., Bagalwa, M., Balagizi, C., Carn, S.A., Darrah, T.H., Fernández, J., Galle, B., González, P.J., Head, E., Karume, K., Kavotha, D., Lukaya, F., Mashagiro, N., Mavonga, G., Norman, P., Osodundu, E., Pallero, J.L.G., Prieto, J.F., Samsonov, S., Syauswa, M., Tedesco, D., Tiampo, K., Wauthier, C., Yalire, M.M., 2014. Detailed multidisciplinary monitoring reveals pre- and co-eruptive signals at Nyamulagira volcano (North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo). Bull Volcanol 76 (787): 35 pp.

Smets, B., Kervyn, M., Kervyn, F., d'Oreye, N., 2015. Spatio-temporal dynamics of eruptions in a youthful extensional setting: Insights from Nyamulagira volcano (D.R. Congo), in the western branch of the East African Rift. Earth-Science Review 150, 305-328. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.008

Geologic Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with the adjacent steep-sided Nyiragongo to the SW. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Tom Pfeiffer, Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); Erik Klemetti, Eruptions Blog, Wired (URL: https://www.wired.com/author/erikvolc/); Cultur Volcan, Journal d'un volcanophile (URL: https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.com/); MONUSCO, United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (URL: https://monusco.unmissions.org/en/); Oliver Grunewald, Video filmed on 10 July 2015 (URL: https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/2015/07/le-lac-de-lave-du-volcan-nyamuragira.html).


Reventador (Ecuador) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Reventador

Ecuador

0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and ash plumes monthly during June 2014-December 2015

The andesitic Volcán El Reventador lies well east of the main volcanic axis of the Cordillera Real in Ecuador and has historical observations of eruptions of numerous lava flows and explosive events going back to the 16th century. The largest historical eruption took place in November 2002 and generated a 17-km-high eruption cloud, pyroclastic flows that traveled 8 km, and several lava flows. This report briefly summarizes activity between 2002 and June 2014, and covers details of activity from July 2014 through December 2015. The volcano is monitored by the Instituto Geofisico-Escuela Politecnicia Nacional (IG) of Ecuador, and the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Summary of 2002-2014 activity. Intermittent activity including pyroclastic flows, ash plumes, lava flows and explosive events took place between 2003 and 2008. Since July 2008 there have been persistent gas-and-ash plumes, dome growth, and both pyroclastic and lava flows. Lahars are also very common in this high-rainfall area, and cause damage to infrastructure on a regular basis. A lava dome was first observed growing in September 2009 within the crater that formed during the 2002 eruption. By July 2011, it had reached the height of the highest part of the crater rim; by January 2013 it filled the crater and formed a new summit, 100 m above the E rim. This led to lava blocks travelling down the flanks, in addition to the lava flows and pyroclastic flows traveling down the flanks of the cone inside the crater during 2012-2014. A summary of thermal anomalies compiled from MIROVA data (figure 46) demonstrates the ongoing but intermittent nature of heat flow between 2002 and 2014.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Thermal activity detected by the MIROVA system at Reventador, January 2002-January 2014. Courtesy of IG (Informe Especial del Volcan Reventador No. 3, 7 July 2014).

Summary of June 2014-December 2015 activity. Activity was very consistent throughout the period of June 2014 through December 2015. The thermal webcam captured images of lava flows, pyroclastic flows and ejected incandescent blocks nearly every month. MODVOLC thermal alerts were reported every month except March 2015. Satellite imagery of hot spots were common as well. The Washington VAAC reported observations of ash plumes every month, although they generally rose only to altitudes below 5.6 km (2 km above the summit). IG reported seismicity as varying between moderate and high during the period.

Activity during June-December 2014. Activity during June 2014 was characterized by numerous explosions and small pyroclastic flows that descended the flanks of the cone. The Washington VAAC issued two series of reports on 11-12 and 19-20 June. A pilot reported an ash plume on 11 June rising 2.8 km above summit at 6.4 km altitude and drifting W, and the next day ash was observed 1.8 km above the summit. Weather generally obscured satellite views. On 19 June, multiple small emissions of volcanic ash were seen in the observatory webcam along with incandescent material on the flanks. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on 5, 21, and 30 June.

IG reported a new lava flow on 2 July 2014 descending 400 m on the SSW flank. A pyroclastic flow was also reported on 2 July (figure 45, BGVN 39:07) extending 1,500 m down the S flank. IG noted ash emissions on 2, 4, 9-12, 18, 22-24, and 27 July rising 800 m to 2 km above the summit. MODVOLC reported multi-pixel thermal alerts on 2, 16, and 27 July, and single pixel alerts on 10 and 25 July. In addition to the ash plumes reported by IG, the Washington VAAC reported on-going ash emissions and detected hotspots at the crater on 31 July.

The Washington VAAC issued a report of hot spots visible in satellite imagery on 1 August 2014 and a pilot report of an ash plume at 6.1 km altitude (2.5 km above the summit) on 25 August. The only MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on 31 August. IG reported lower level plumes (300-800 m above the summit) with minor ash on 6 other days during the month.

Activity increased during September 2014. The Washington VAAC issued reports during 2-4, 18, and 23 September. On 2 September, ash plumes were observed extending about 45 km W of the summit at 5.5 km altitude. Another faint plume of volcanic ash was observed within 20 km of the summit the next day. An ongoing hotspot with possible small ash emissions was noted on 4 September. IG reported an explosion on the morning of 5 September that generated a plume and ejected blocks from the crater that fell ~500 m below the summit on the W flank. A thermal camera detected an explosion on the following day that also included ballistics. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on eight days during September. Steam plumes with minor ash rose to around 1 km above the summit and dispersed generally W several times during the month.

A single MODVOLC thermal alert was reported on 6 October 2014. The Washington VAAC reported short 2-3 minute bursts of minor volcanic ash on 19 October which was seen drifting WNW and dispersing within 16 km of the summit below 5.8 km altitude. An additional single pixel thermal alert was issued on 25 October, and a three-pixel alert appeared on 29 October.

IG reported steam-and-ash plumes rising up to 1 km above the summit a few times during the month, which were visible on the rare clear-weather days (figure 47). Only two days in November, 5 and 21, had MODVOLC thermal alerts. The Washington VAAC, however, issued reports during 11-12, 18-19, and 27 November of possible low-level ash-bearing plumes. The IG webcam LAVA on the SE flank captured images of pyroclastic flows on 20 and 25 November (figure 48).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. The active cone at Reventador on 9 November 2014 with a low-level steam plume. Image taken from the IG Webcam LAVA on the SE flank. Courtesy of IG via La Culture Volcan.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Pyroclastic flows at Reventador, 20 (left) and 25 (right) November 2014 taken from the IG LAVA webcam on the SE flank. Courtesy of IG via Culture Volcan.

On 5 December 2014 a webcam recorded a steam-and-gas emission associated with an incandescent lava flow on the E flank. MODVOLC thermal alert pixels appeared on four days in December 2014 (3, 7, 14, and 23), and VAAC reports of ash plumes were issued on 5, 13-14, 21-22, and 30 December. The largest plume, on 14 December, rose to 6.1 km (2.5 km above the summit) and drifted NE. IG reported moderate seismicity and low-level steam plumes with minor ash content on several occasions.

Activity during 2015. Moderate seismic activity continued during January 2015 with low-level steam-and-ash plumes from explosions rising a few hundred meters above the summit, according to IG. A larger explosion reported by IG on 16 January generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SE. The Washington VAAC reported activity from 14-18 January, and again on 26 January. Their reports were of small puffs of ash within a kilometer of the summit drifting for a few hours before dissipating. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on 15 and 29 January.

Steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash were recorded a few times during February 2015 during periods of moderate seismicity. The Washington VAAC issued several reports, during 7-9, 13-17, 19-21, 24, and 26-28 February, noting occasional plumes with ash rising to less than one km above the summit, and hot-spots seen in satellite imagery on 13-14, 17, 19, and 27 February. An aircraft reported volcanic ash on 19 February at 6.1 km altitude. A new lava flow first observed on the SW flank on 11 February had advanced 1 km by 19 February. This is consistent with the four-pixel MODVOLC thermal alert issued on 18 February. Single pixel alerts were issued on 7, 19, and 23 February as well.

No MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued during March 2015, but the Washington VAAC continued to note low-level small bursts of ash emissions several times a week within 15 km of the summit, as reported by IG. The webcam captured a hotspot at the summit on 11 March. A thermal camera image of a lava flow taken on 13 March showed the visible part of it to be over 500 m long (figure 49), and IG noted in their 13 March report that is was actually about 1.5 km long that day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Annotated thermal camera image at Reventador of an 11 March 2015 lava flow. Camera is located SE of the volcano. Courtesy of IG (Informe especial del Volcan Reventador No. 1, 13 March 2015).

Activity during April 2015 included moderate seismicity and incandescence at the crater reported by IG. A lava flow on the SW flank was visible with the infrared camera during the first week; this agrees with the 5-pixel MODVOLC thermal alert recorded on 5 April and the bright hotspot observed in both satellite imagery and the webcam during 3-5 April. Hot spots were observed via satellite and webcam several additional times during the month. Additional thermal alerts also appeared on 10 and 21 April. Steam-and-ash plumes rising to 1 km above the summit were intermittent throughout the month, mostly observed from the webcam.

Multi-pixel MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared during 2-3, 20, and 30 May, indicating continued sources of heat from lava flows. In a special report issued on 19 May, IG noted a new lava flow during the previous week that descended the S flank, forming a fan with three lobes on the SE and SW flanks. The length was greater than 1,000 m from the summit on 19 May, although the flows remained on the flanks of the summit cone within the caldera (figure 50). IG noted an increase in emission tremor on 17 May which may have been related to the extrusion of the lava, but weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. During 17-30 May, intermittent low-level gas-and-ash plumes within 15 km of the summit were reported on most days.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Annotated thermal image of the summit cone of Reventador on 19 May 2015 showing a 3-lobed lava flow descending the S flank of the cone for more than 1 km. Courtesy of IG (Informe especial del Volcan Reventador No. 2, 19 May 2015).

MODVOLC thermal alerts diminished during June 2015, occurring only on 8 and 15 June. Nonetheless, thermal images showed lava flows down the SW and S flanks of the cone several times, and hot spots were observed in satellite images and on the webcam when the weather permitted. Steam-and-ash plumes were generally reported to rise to 1 km or less above the summit and drift usually NW or SW within 15 km of the volcano. A pilot reported volcanic ash on 30 June at 6.7 km, but no ash was seen in satellite imagery under cloudy conditions. IG issued a special report on 24 June noting increased seismicity in the form of increased tremor signal and explosions on 23 June. The thermal camera located in the area of El Copete, 5 km S of the crater, showed an increase in surface activity characterized by several lava flows on the SW, S, and SE flanks exceeding one km in length (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Thermal image of Reventador taken on 23 June at 1950 by the webcam near El Copete. Courtesy of IG (Informe especial del Volcan Reventador No. 3, 24 June 2015).

Seismic activity was reported as high during July 2015 by IG, and included explosions, tremor, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and emission signals. During the first week, incandescent material was visible more than 1 km down the SE flank in thermal images. On 17 July, light gray deposits possibly from a pyroclastic flow were observed; on 21 July explosions again ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. Steam and ash emissions were intermittent and generally remained below 5.1 km altitude. MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared on 1, 3, 15, and 17 July.

High levels of seismic activity continued during August 2015. The Washington VAAC reported possible ash plumes on 14 days during the month, and MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on six dates, including four-pixel alerts on 4 and 27 August suggestive of lava flows and/or incandescent material on the flanks of the cone. A discrete volcanic ash emission on 6 August was reported by the Washington VAAC at 7 km altitude (3.4 km above the summit) with a plume extending about 25 km NW of the summit. Other plumes that were reported by pilots (on 25 August at 8.8 km altitude moving NW, and on 26 August at 6.7 km moving W) were not observed in cloudy satellite imagery.

Ash-and-gas emissions were reported by the Washington VAAC during 14 days in September 2015, generally drifting N and W at altitudes less than 2 km above the crater (5.6 km altitude); high levels of seismicity also continued, according to IG. The Guayaquil MWO reported volcanic ash at 6.1 km on 19 September. Puffs of ash seen in the webcam were reported at 7.3 km altitude on 25 September and thought to have quickly dissipated. MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared on seven days during the month; five of them were two- or three-pixel alerts. An SO2 plume drifting WNW from Reventador was captured by NASA's OMI instrument on 22 September (figure 52).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. An SO2 plume drifting W from Reventador on 22 September 2015. Reventador is represented by the triangle south of the NW-SE trending Ecuador/Columbia border in the bottom center of the image near longitude 78 W just south of the equator. A small plume in the top half of the image is likely SO2 from Nevado del Ruiz. Courtesy of NASA/GSFC.

A series of VAAC reports of low-level minor ash emissions were issued during 1-5 October 2015. After two weeks of no activity, multi-pixel MODVOLC thermal alerts and VAAC reports increased during 20-30 October. The peak MODVOLC activity included 4-6 daily pixels during 26-28 October, and the VAAC reports noted a bright hotspot on the satellite images beginning on 20 October and present for most of the rest of the month. Continuous emissions were observed in the webcam during 22-26 October, generally below 4.6 km, moving NW, and extending up to 40 km from the summit. Continuous emissions appeared again on 30 October at 5.1 km moving W.

During the last two weeks of November 2015, steam, gas, and ash emissions rose to less than 2 km above the summit and incandescent blocks rolled 500 m down the flanks of the cone. MODVOLC thermal alerts were reported for five days between 15 and 29 November. Similar activity was reported during December, although the Washington VAAC only issued reports on four different days, and MODVOLC thermal alerts were recorded only on 6 and 24 December. VAAC reports noted hotspots in satellite imagery on 7 December. The VAAC reports on 11 and 16 December indicated ash plumes at 5.5 km moving W and SW.

Geologic Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. It has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Culture Volcan, Journal d'un volcanophile (URL: https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/).


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash emissions July 2012-December 2015; increased thermal activity October-December 2015

A February 2012 ash explosion of Columbia's Nevado del Ruiz volcano was the first confirmed ash emission in over 20 years. The broad, glacier-capped volcano has an eruption history documented back 8,600 years, and historical observations since 1570. Notably, a large explosion at night in heavy rain on 13 November 1985 generated large lahars that washed down 11 flank valleys, inundating most severely the town of Armero where over 20,000 residents were killed. It remains the second deadliest volcanic eruption of the 20th century after Mt. Pelee in 1902 killed 28,000.

This report summarizes and concludes the February 2012-April 2014 eruption (BGVN 37:08, 39:07), and then describes details of new activity beginning in November 2014, through December 2015. The volcano is monitored by the Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) and aviation reports are provided by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Summary of activity, November 1985-June 2012. After the large explosions and deadly lahars of November 1985, activity at Ruiz continued with intermittent ash emissions and significant seismic activity through July 1991. Seismicity, deformation, and SO2 emissions have been closely monitored since the 1985 eruption. Between 1991 and February 2012 intermittent high-frequency seismic events (earthquake swarms) were recorded, but no ash emissions were observed. In September 2010, seismicity notably increased in frequency and diversity of event type until early 2012 when fresh ashfall was observed. INGEOMINAS (Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería, precursor to SGC) also noted an inflationary trend in the geodetic data from October 2010 through 2011.

A March 2012 overflight by INGEOMINAS noted minor amounts of ash-covered snow on the E flank, which they surmised came from an explosion on 22 February (BGVN 37:08). During March, long-period seismicity underwent a 20-fold increase. SO2 emissions also dramatically increased between March and June 2012. Several ash emissions from the summit were observed during April-June 2012 (BGVN 37:08). An ash plume that rose to 11 km altitude on 29 May caused ashfall in over 20 communities to the NW and closures at three nearby airports. Widespread ashfall during June covered solar panels on field equipment. An EO-1 satellite image from 6 June 2012 shows a plume and significant ashfall around the summit (figure 71).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Satellite image of Nevado del Ruiz taken on 6 June 2012 showing an active ash plume from the Arenas crater and ash deposits NW of the summit. It was acquired by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. Courtesy NASA Earth Observatory.

Summary of activity, July 2012-December 2015.Explosions and seismic tremor with ash emissions continued during July and August 2012. Ashfall was reported within 30 km on numerous occasions. From September 2012 through early July 2013 minor amounts of ashfall were reported a few times each month, mostly in the immediate vicinity of the volcano. After a larger explosion on 11 July 2013, sparse and intermittent ash emissions were reported between August 2013 and April 2014. Between May and October 2014 there were no reports of ash emissions or thermal anomalies.

A significant increase in seismicity occurred during the second week of November 2014, and ash was seen at the summit during an overflight on 19 November. Ash fell in communities within 30 km several times each month through December 2015. Seismic evidence suggesting possible lava dome extrusion first appeared in August 2015, and stronger signals were recorded on 22 October. Thermal anomalies around the summit crater increased in frequency and magnitude during the last three months of 2015.

Activity during July 2012-October 2014.A large ash plume on 30 June 2012 prompted evacuation warnings to several communities within 30 km and closed three nearby airports for the second time within 30 days. On 2 July the Washington VAAC reported a 7.5-km-wide ash plume at 6.1 km altitude drifting 75 km W (BGVN 37:08). Additional VAAC reports were issued on 8, 9, and 10 July for SO2 emissions containing minor volcanic ash. SGC noted that explosions and ash emissions continued throughout the month in spite of a decrease in seismicity. Ashfall was reported near the volcano, and in municipalities in the departments of Caldas (W) and Risaralda (SW), steadily throughout the month.

Tremors associated with continuing gas and ash emissions occurred throughout August 2012; ash plumes were observed rising 200-800 m above the summit crater. During 3-6 August, gas and ash emissions were seen from Manizales (30 km NW) and Chinchiná (30 km WNW). On 12 August, a gas-and-ash plume observed with a webcam rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W, and ashfall was reported in Brisas (50 km SW). A layer of ash was deposited at the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales (OVSM) on 13 August; they also reported ash emissions associated with seismic signals the next evening. Webcams showed gas-and-ash plumes rising 400 m and drifting W and NW during 15-16 August.

Minor amounts of ashfall were reported by SGC in areas around the volcano each month during September 2012 through 11 July 2013 (table 4), when a larger ash emission occurred. A noted increase in seismicity beginning on 13 April 2013 was also reported by SGC. The ash emission on 11 July was captured by the webcam in the Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados (PNNN) (figure 72), and fine ash fell in Manizales. The Washington VAAC reported the ash plume at 6.1 km altitude. Multispectral imagery showed the plume extending 55 km NW. After 12 July 2013 there were no further reports from the Washington VAAC until December 2014.

Table 4. Ash emission events at Ruiz during September 2012-July 2013. Data compiled from various sources as shown.

Date Event Details Source
06 Sep 2012 Small explosion Small ash emission. SGC Weekly Report, 3-9 Sep 2012
10 Oct 2012 Ash plume 7.3 km altitude, drifting 35 km NW. Washington VAAC
15-16 Nov 2012 Possible ash emission Weather clouds prevented observation, faint thermal anomaly detected. Washington VAAC
10 Dec 2012 Tremor Early morning, gas and ash emissions. SGC Weekly Report, 3-9 Dec (published 11 Dec) 2012
09 Jan 2013 Tremor Ash and gas emission, ashfall reported in the Valle de las Tumbas, W of the summit crater. SGC Weekly Report, 7-13 Jan 2013
16 Jan 2013 Faint ash plume Drifting NE 50 km; hot spot. Washington VAAC
11 Feb 2013 Gas and ash plume Webcam images and visual observation from Observatorio Manizales, 1,600 m above the crater. SGC Monthly Technical Report, February 2013
07-10 Mar 2013 Continuous tremor Gas and ash emissions reported by officials from the Parque Nacional Natural los Nevados (PNNN). SGC Weekly Report, 4-10 Mar 2013.
11-17 Mar 2013 Continuous tremor Gas and ash emissions. SGC Weekly Report, 11-17 Mar 2013
10-30 Apr 2013 Constant tremor Small gas and ash emissions beginning 10 April. SGC Monthly Technical Report, Apr 2013
14 Apr 2013 Gas and ash plume Webcam image of gas and ash plume rose 630 m and drifted NW. INGEOMINAS daily report, 14 Apr 2013
15-21 Apr 2013 Ashfall confirmed Ashfall confirmed near Villahermosa (Tolima), 30 km NE. SGC Weekly Report, 15-21 Apr 2013
22 and 27 May 2013 Ash and gas emissions Confirmed by seismic signals as well as the webcams. SGC Monthly Report, May 2013
June 2013 Low-energy tremors Associated with gas and ash emissions, pulses of low energy. SGC Monthly Technical Report, June 2013
11 July 2013 Small ash emission Confirmed by OVSM webcams, and officials at PNNN. Ashfall reported in Valle de las Tumbas and Manizales. SGC Monthly Technical Report, July 2013; SGC Weekly Report 8-14 July 2013; Washington VAAC
Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Ash emission at Ruiz on 11 July 2013 at 1143. The column of gases and gray ash stands out among the white clouds. Photo by Julián Peña, courtesy of SGC (Informe-Technico, July 2013).

Evidence for ash emissions between August 2013 and April 2014 is sparse and intermittent. The SGC Monthly reports during this time mention pulses of low-energy tremor associated with emissions of gases, steam, and small amounts of ash every month except November, when they reported only steam and gas, but no specific dates are given. SGC's Technical Information Monthly reports mention occasional grayish coloration, suggesting ash in the gas-and-steam plumes during August-October 2013. Tremors associated with small amounts of ash and grayish coloration in the plumes are again noted from January through April 2014 without describing specific events.

The weekly activity reports issued by SGC make no mention of ash from August through November 2013. They note in weekly reports for 2-8 and 9-15 December that gray emissions possibly associated with ash in plumes of mostly water vapor and gases were observed. During the week of 16-23 December they recorded low-energy tremors associated with the output of small amounts of ash, which were reported in trace quantities in Manizales. In their 31 December 2013-6 January 2014 and 10-16 February 2014 weekly reports they noted the occurrence of tremors associated with ash and gas. There is no mention of ash in their March or April 2014 weekly reports. There is also no mention of ash emission in SGC monthly reports during May-October 2014. The MIROVA thermal anomaly data do show minor thermal anomalies in latest August and more persistent anomalies at the beginning of October 2014 (figure 73) prior to the reports of ash emissions during November.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. MIROVA signal of MODIS data for the year ending on 15 May 2015. Persistent thermal anomalies are present between late October 2014 and mid-April 2015. Courtesy of the MIROVA project supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department via SGC (Informe de Actividad, April 2015).

Activity during November 2014-December 2015.A significant change in seismicity occurred beginning in the second week of November 2014. There was an increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes, pulses of volcanic tremor, and several periods of continuous tremor (lasting for hours or even days) associated with fluid movement, and with emissions of gas and ash (table 5). Several of these periods were preceded by an LP event. The first significant pulse of volcanic tremor began on the evening of 18 November following an LP event and lasted more than 12 hours.

Table 5. Periods of continuous tremor associated with ash emissions at Ruiz during November 2014. Some of the tremor episodes were preceded by long-period (LP) events. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, November 2014).

Date Time (local) Duration LP event (local time)
18 Nov 2014 1918 More than 12 hours 1918
20 Nov 2014 0224 More than 20 hours 0223
21 Nov 2014 0108 More than 4 hours --
28 Nov 2014 1310 More than 4 hours 1305
28 Nov 2014 1941 More than 8 hours --
29 Nov 2014 1307 More than 48 hours 1305

The Unidad Nacional de Gestion de Riesgo de Desastres (UNGRD, National Disaster Risk Management Unit) coordinated an overflight during 19-21 November 2014 and observed fresh ash deposits on the S flank. Ash emissions were also verified in satellite imagery (figure 74) and by reports from nearby communities. The ash dispersed generally SE and SW during 18-21 November. Ash was again observed on the N side of the Arenas crater on 29 November in the early morning after a lengthy period of continuous tremor was recorded the previous day (see table 5).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Image of Ruiz on 24 November 2014 taken by the OLI-TIRS sensor on the Landsat 8 Satellite at 1018 local time. Ash deposits are dispersed SE and SW of the summit crater, and the steam plume is drifting W. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, November 2014).

During the second half of December 2014, SGC reported significant concentrations of ash in the emissions that were associated with continuous tremor episodes. On 15 December seismic signals indicating ash emissions were detected, and then confirmed by a local webcam and nearby residents. The Washington VAAC also noted an ash emission based on a pilot observation extending 16 km S at 7.6 km altitude. The next day they reported a narrow plume of minor volcanic ash extending 22 km SW of the summit at 6.1 km altitude. On 18 and 19 December the Washington VAAC reported ash plumes to altitudes of 7.9 and 9.1 km, respectively, that drifted SSW and dissipated within a few hours. A faint thermal anomaly was also detected. A satellite image taken on 26 December 2014 clearly shows ash deposits in nearly all directions from the Arenas crater (figure 75). Ashfall was reported during this time in the Caldas (W) and Risaralda (SW) departments.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. An ASTER image from the OLI-TIRS Sensor on the Landsat 8 satellite taken on 26 December 2014 of Ruiz (N is to the top) showing fresh ash deposits covering the summit glacier in nearly all directions. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, December 2014).

According to the news source Prensa Latina, increased ash emissions at Ruiz prompted closure of the La Nubia airport (22 km NW) on 7 January 2015. On 14 January, the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery extending 16 km SW of the summit at 6.7 km altitude. SGC reported seven episodes of continuous tremor on 4, 7, 14, 24, 26, 28, and 29 January, almost all of which were associated with ash emissions (figures 76). Ashfall was reported several times after these episodes in the Eje Cafetero area to the W of Ruiz.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Ash emissions on six different dates during January 2015 at Ruiz. Photographs taken by the webcam located in the Azufrado sector (NW). Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, January 2015).

Occasional minor ash emissions were reported during February 2015 during periods of continuous tremor, but most of the emissions were steam and gas. On 9 February, ashfall was reported in El Libano (29 km E), El Oso (10 km SE), and Murillo (17 km E). Although seismic tremors were diminished during March from the previous month, emissions associated with these tremors contained gases and minor amounts of ash from 8 March through the end of the month. Ashfall was reported after a tremor in the evening on 8 March by personnel from the Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados (PNNN), the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales (OVSM), and from the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaria (27 km NW).

An increase in several types of seismicity was observed by SGC during April 2015. Volcanic tremor, associated with gas and ash emissions, were confirmed through photographs taken by the webcams (figure 77), and by officials at PNNN and SGC. Ashfall was reported on 20 April in the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaría. The Washington VAAC reported a small puff of gas and minor amounts of ash visible in satellite imagery on 22 April at 7.3 km altitude drifting W about 40 km before dissipating. The MIROVA signal from the MODIS thermal anomaly data shows persistent thermal activity from late October 2014 through mid-April 2015 (figure 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Plumes of ash-and-gas from Ruiz during April 2015. Confirmed ash emissions were observed on 9, 22, 27, and 29 April. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, April 2015).

Ash emissions were photographed by the webcams located in the Azufrado and Cerro Guali regions on at least eleven dates during May 2015. The Washington VAAC reported possible emissions on 19 and 26 May, but extensive weather clouds prevented satellite observations. Most of the frequent episodes of volcanic tremor during June were also associated with ash emissions which were photographed at least six times during the month. The Observatory at Manizales reported ash moving WNW on 6 June at about 800 m above the summit; weather clouds obscured satellite observations by the Washington VAAC.

A significant increase in ashfall was reported during July 2015 (figure 78), including in the regions of Caldas, Tolima, and Risaralda, as well as by officials in the Park (PNNN). The Observatory at Manizales (OVSM) reported an ash plume on 6 July at about 7.3 km altitude, but it was not observed in satellite data due to weather. The Washington VAAC noted ash emissions visible in satellite data and the webcam on 13 July, with a plume at 7 km altitude drifting NW a few tens of kilometers before dissipating. OVSM reported plumes at about 6 km moving S and W during 18-20 July. Seismic signals indicating emissions were reported on 23 July and observed in the webcam, according to the Washington VAAC. SGC noted seismic tremors and a plume on the morning of 26 July that rose to 3 km above the summit (8.2 km altitude) (figure 79); near summit-level emissions were also observed via the webcam on 26 and 27 July. Seismic data indicated continued occasional bursts of ash drifting W to WSW during the next few days. Ashfall was reported downwind in the municipalities of Chinchina (33 km NW), Palestina (35 km NW), Santa Rosa de Cabal (33 km W), Dosquebradas (40 km WSW), and Pereira (40 km WSW). A bright thermal anomaly was reported in satellite imagery on 31 July, but no ash was observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Gas, steam, and ash plumes from the Arenas crater at Ruiz during July 2015. Photographs captured by the cameras located in the area of Azufrado, Cerro Gualí, and in the OVSM. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, July 2015).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Seismic and visual images of tremors that produced ash emissions at Ruiz between 0800 and 1559 on 26 July 2015. The digital seismogram and spectrogram are from station BIS (2 km W of Arenas Crater) and show a characteristic spasmodic tremor (1, 2, and 3) that was associated with ash emissions recorded on the Piranha-Azufrado webcamera in the lower images. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, July 2015).

SGC reported greater instability at Ruiz compared with previous months during August 2015. Seismicity related to fracturing and fluid flow both increased during the month. Energy levels for spasmodic tremor related to gas and ash emissions were also generally higher. The Washington VAAC reported ash visible in satellite imagery on 6 August at 7.3 km altitude moving NW as far as 20 km for about 10 hours before dissipating. They noted another possible plume with minor ash on 12 August at 6.7 km drifting 55 km NW from the summit. Ashfall was reported on 23 August from officials of PNNN and residents of Pereira. A brief emission containing minor ash on 28 August, observed in a webcam, was reported by the Washington VAAC as extending about 35 km W. Ongoing emissions rising a few hundred meters above the summit with occasional small bursts of ash continued for the next two days.

The tremor event on 31 August 2015 was the largest since 18 November 2014; ashfall affected numerous cities and municipalities, including Manizales (30 km NW) (with the largest particle sizes towards the E side of the city), La Linda, La Cabaña (36 km NW), and trace amounts in Santagueda (40 km NW), Arauca (48 km NW), Kilómetro 41, Villamaría (27 km NW), Chinchiná, Palestina, and Neira (36 km NW) (figure 80). A news article reported that the La Nubia airport closed that day due to ash emissions. Most ash emissions during the month affected the regions of Caldas and Risaralda NW of the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Ashfall was recorded in a number of cities during the 31 August 2015 emission event at Ruiz. The four left images are from the city of Manizales. The six right images are from different towns in the department of Caldas. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, August 2015).

The Washington VAAC issued advisory reports on 3, 12-15, 17, 23-24, 27, and 29-30 September 2015. Most reports were based on observations from the webcams near the volcano and/or seismic activity, but many events were not visible in satellite imagery due to weather clouds. Plume altitudes ranged from 5.5 to 7.9 km. Incandescence observed in a webcam on 4 September was followed by a high-energy tremor. The ash plumes reported by the Washington VAAC on 12 and 13 September rose to 7.9 km and drifted in several directions. Ash was moving to the NW below 5.2 km and extended for over 90 km; between 5.2 and 7.9 km altitude it extended about 80 km SW. Ongoing emissions with small bursts of ash continued through 15 September with a new emission to 7.6 km around 1600 that day.

The OVSM reported a strong seismic signal at 0728 on 17 September, but weather clouds blocked observation from satellite imagery of the potential ash plume. The largest tremor of the month occurred in the afternoon of 18 September and ash emissions were verified in the webcams as well as by SGO officials doing fieldwork in the area; ash emissions were also observed in the webcam on 19 September at 1556. SGO reported a seismic event on 22 September that produced water-vapor, gas, and ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted mainly NW. An ash plume was confirmed by the Washington VAAC in a satellite image on 27 September extending about 70 km WNW at 6.1 km altitude. An advisory issued on 29 September noted ash to 8.5 km within 16 km of the summit. SGO noted that the 29 September emissions were observed both E and W of the volcano.

The Washington VAAC confirmed continuous ash emissions on 5 October 2015 at 7 km altitude extending about 25 km W of the summit. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 1.7 km and drifted NW on 8 October. Another report of volcanic ash early on 9 October was not visible in satellite imagery, although a thermal anomaly persisted and seismicity was elevated. A small ash emission was spotted in imagery data drifting WNW late on 9 October. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 1.8 km and drifted NW on 17 October. A discrete emission of ash rose to 9.1 km altitude on 22 October and drifted N. SGO reported ash emissions observed in webcams on 26 October, but weather clouds prevented satellite observation by the Washington VAAC. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 1.7 km and drifted NW on 30 October.

SGC first noticed an unusual pattern of seismicity known as a "drumbeat" signal, for which they issued a special report on 20 August 2015. The "drumbeat" signal is characterized by discrete episodes of short duration (about 30 minutes each) that repeat at regular time intervals and show similar waveforms and energy. They are interpreted by volcanologists to represent phenomena associated with the ascent of high-viscosity magma to the surface and thus are an indicator of near-surface extrusion or dome building. SGC recorded the same signal on 8 September, and then again on 22 October (figure 81). Thermal anomalies near the Arenas crater were observed by SGO on 26, 28, and 30 September, and were again recorded on 7, 9, and 10 October 2015.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Episodes of seismic "drumbeats" at Ruiz recorded on 22 October 2015. The top box is the vertical component seismic record from station BIS, the larger yellow shaded box highlights the entire 'drumbeat' episode. The seismogram from the OLLETA station (lower left) shows a clearer view of the first episode (1). The lower right images show details of the signal at three different time intervals highlighted in smaller boxes in the top image. This signal is interpreted to represent phenomena associated with the ascent of high-viscosity magma to the surface and thus are an indicator of near-surface extrusion or dome building over the emission conduit. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, October 2015).

Seismic activity decreased slightly during November 2015, but there still were episodes of volcanic tremor associated with gas and ash emissions that were recorded by the webcams and personnel at PNNN. Continuous tremor signal was recorded on 1 and 4 November. The "drumbeat" signal was again briefly recorded on 13 November. Thermal anomalies increased in frequency and were observed on 4, 18, 20, 22, 26, and 27 November. SGC confirmed ash emissions on 5, 10, 14, 27, and 29 November. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume on 14 November at 6.4 km altitude moving SW. SGC captured images of the ash plume from two different webcams (figure 82).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Photographs of the ash emission at Ruiz of 14 November 2015 at 0537 from two different webcams. Top image is from the Azufrado webcam (5 km NE) and the lower image is from the Pitayo webcam. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, November 2015).

Thermal alerts captured by the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC system appeared in December 2015 for the first time in several years. They were recorded on 3, 22, 26, and 31 December. Additionally, the MIROVA thermal anomaly system showed significant increases in anomalies at Ruiz during the last three months of 2015 (figure 83).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. MIROVA data for the year ending 2 January 2016 showing the substantial increase in frequency and magnitude of thermal anomalies at Ruiz during the last three months of 2015. Courtesy of MIROVA via SGC (Informe de Actividad, December 2015).

Minor episodes of volcanic tremor with ash emissions were reported by SGC during the first two weeks of December 2015. A significant volcanic tremor with ash emissions occurred on 20 December, and ashfall was reported by SGC officials, PNNN personnel, and residents near the volcano and in the city of Manizales. The Washington VAAC noted the ash plume at 6.1 km altitude with 25 km of the summit. A gas, steam and ash plume rose 1.7 km and drifted NW on 28 December.

Sulfur Dioxide emissions, June 2012-2015. Persistent, large SO2 plumes were captured from Ruiz many times during June 2012-December 2015 (figure 84 and 85). Every month during this period the OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument) on the Aura satellite recorded days with SO2 emissions exceeding 2 DU (Dobson Units); many months had more than half of the recording days with values > 2 DU. Dobson Units are the number of molecules in a square centimeter of the atmosphere. If you were to compress all of the sulfur dioxide in a column of the atmosphere into a flat layer at standard temperature and pressure, one Dobson Unit would be 0.01 millimeters thick and contain 0.0285 grams of SO2 per square meter.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Select Aura/OMI images of SO2 plumes from Ruiz, 2012-2013. Top left: 14 June 2012, the SO2 plume drifts NW. Top right: 18 August 2012, the SO2 plume from Ruiz drifts W. An SO2 plume is also visible drifting W from Ecuador's Cotopaxi in the lower left corner of the image. Bottom left: A 10.26 DU (Dobson Unit) SO2 plume sits directly over Ruiz on 7 December 2012. Bottom right: The SO2 plume drifts south on 19 December 2013. See text above for description of Dobson Units. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Select Aura/OMI images of SO2 plumes from Ruiz, 2014-2015. Top left: On 3 February 2014 an SO2 plume from Ruiz drifts due W while another plume drifts NE from Guagua Pichincha in northern Ecuador. Top right: A 24 September 2014 SO2 plume drifts NW from Ruiz as far as the coastline. Bottom left: On 5 March 2015, a plume drifts slightly W from Ruiz. Bottom right: A W-drifting SO2 plume from Ruiz on 4 October 2015 is visible along with W-drifting plumes from both Cotopaxi and Tungurahua in Ecuador. Courtesy of NASA/GSFC.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC), Observatorio Vulcanologico Y Sismologico Manizales, Diagonal 53 N0. 34 - 53 - Bogotá D.C. Colombia (URL: http://www2.sgc.gov.co/Manizales.aspx); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Prensa Latina, Agencia Informativa Latinoamericana (URL: http://www.plenglish.com/).


Turrialba (Costa Rica) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Turrialba

Costa Rica

10.025°N, 83.767°W; summit elev. 3340 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Persistent explosions and ash emissions during 2015 and 2016

Strong fumarolic activity characterized activity at Costa Rica's Turrialba for several decades before a phreatic eruption in January 2010 resulted in ashfall tens of kilometers from the volcano. Since the January-March 2010 eruption, there have been one or two brief eruptive episodes with ash emissions each year, generally lasting days to weeks. An episode from 29 October through 8 December 2014 began with an ash explosion, followed by continuous emissions on 30 and 31 October. Several additional explosions with ash emissions occurred during November, followed by a strong Strombolian explosion on 8 December that included ashfall up to 1 cm thick in places, and ballistics deposited 300 m from the vent (BGVN 40:04). This report covers the increasing ash-emission activity during 2015 and 2016. Information comes primarily from the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sysmologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA). Aviation alerts are issued by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Turrialba began a new eruptive episode with an ash plume on 8 March 2015. Frequent, intermittent ash-bearing events continued through mid-May, and tapered off during June, with a final event reported on 22 June 2015. The larger plumes rose 2-2.5 km above the vent rim and drifted in many different directions, leading to ashfall throughout the region as far as 40 km from the volcano. A 'bubble of magmatic gas' dispersed accumulated ash from the vent on 15 August 2015. An eruption on 16 October 2015 was the largest in a year, and the start of a new series of emissions that persisted through the end of October, dispersing ash for tens of kilometers in most directions. A brief period of ash emissions between 2 and 8 February 2016 deposited ash within a few kilometers of the summit crater. Ash emissions and frequent small explosions between 28 April and 7 May preceded a longer series of emissions that began with a significant explosion on 16 May, included significant ashfall in regions within 30 km, and lasted until late July 2016. Strombolian activity and pyroclastic flows were also reported during late May; ashfall was reported up to 100 km SW. A new series of explosions and ash emissions began on 13 September that continued nearly uninterrupted through the end of the year, although ashfall reports were greatest in October 2016.

Activity during 2015. Little activity was reported during January and February 2015. Seismicity slowly increased from short-duration, low-amplitude, higher-frequency events in January to more lower-frequency events in February. Very-long-period earthquakes (VLP's) began to register in February and became more pronounced during March, when some were associated with explosions and ash emissions. The first, short, effusive emissions with low ash content occurred on 8 March. The largest events with prolonged ash emissions occurred on 12 (figure 43) and 15 March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Eruption at Turrialba on 12 March 2015. Webcam image courtesy of OVSICORI (Boletín de Vulcanología Estado de los Volcanes de Costa Rica, January, February, March 2015).

Based on webcam views, weather models, and OVSICORI-UNA updates, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 March diffuse ash emissions rose from the Cráter Oeste (West Crater) and seismicity increased. OVSICORI-UNA reported more ash emissions on 11 and 12 March. Almost continuous ash emissions were observed in the afternoon of 12 March punctuated by two noticeable explosions. Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater and drifted NW. Ashfall also occurred in the Valle Central and in the capital of San José (30 km WSW), and caused the closure of the Juan Santamaria International Airport (48 km W), which reopened during the evening on 13 March. The local Tobias Bolanos airport (40 km WSW) closed intermittently. On 13 March three short-duration explosions were reported. According to the Washington VAAC, ash plumes that day drifted 45 km NE at an altitude of 9.1 km, and drifted over 35 km W at an altitude of 6.1 km.

On 18 March, OVSICORI-UNA reported that gas, vapor, and ash plumes rose from Cráter Oeste and seismicity remained high. Observers in Finca La Central (2 km SW) noted gas-and-steam emissions. On 19 March two gas-and-water-vapor emissions were observed; one from Cráter Central contained a small amount of ash. At 1400 the webcam recorded strong emissions of gas, vapor, and tephra from Cráter Oeste. On 23 March a gas, vapor, and ash plume rose from Cráter Oeste, causing ashfall in areas E and SE of the crater including in the Cráter Central and El Mirador. In addition, a dense and vigorous gas-and-vapor plume caused Parque Nacional Volcán Turrialba authorities to recommend masks for protection against gas inhalation.

There were 11 gas-and-ash eruptions and 10 additional smaller ash emissions during April 2015. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small ash eruption occurred on 3 April, causing ashfall in nearby areas including Silvia and La Central. On 5 April, an eruption generated a plume that rose 500 m and caused ashfall in Curridabat (31 km WSW), Granadilla (29 km WSW), San Pedro, Desamparados (35 km WSW), Aserrí (40 km SW), San Sebastián (37 km WSW), and Escazú (42 km WSW). The eruption of 7 April was the largest of the month (figure 44), and although it occurred at night, the visible ash plume rose to about 2.5 km above the summit. Ash and sulfur odors were reported in many areas of the city of San José (30-40 km WSW). The largest quantities of ash fell in the La Picada and La Silvia communities a few kilometers NNE of the volcano, and affected several hundred cows and other animals at dairy farms. Small ash emissions occurred on 8, 16, and 18 April, and every day during 20-24 April. The ash on 20 April dispersed N and affected Guápiles (20 km N). On 23 and 24 April, ash dispersed NW and affected the inhabitants of the Valle Central, and was reported at Tobias Bolanos and San Juan Santamaria international airports.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Nightime eruption of ash and hot volcanic blocks from Turrialba on 7 April 2015 that began at 0205 and lasted until 0241. Webcam image courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA, (Boletín de Vulcanología, Estado de los Volcanes de Costa Rica, April 2015)

During May 2015, OVSICORI-UNA recorded 39 eruptions with ash emissions. In general, the plumes did not rise more than 500 m above the crater, and a few were accompanied by small pyroclastic flows. The largest events were on 1 and 4 May when emissions lasted for 4 and 23 minutes, respectively. The 4 May event produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted SW. The eruption ejected ballistics 1 km from the crater. Most of the ashfall occurred around the crater. Reports of minor ashfall and sulfur odors came from communities 30-40 km WSW around the city of San José (Moravia, Coronado, Mata de Plátano, La Uruca, Guadalupe, Tibás, Calle Blancos, San Pedro Montes de Oca, Sabanilla Montes de Oca, Pavas, Zapote, Escazú, Paso Ancho, Curridabat, Santa Ana), and a few localities in the eastern region of Heredia (40 km W). Additional ash emissions were reported on 6, 11, 14, and 18 May. Although the multiple emissions on 18 May lasted as long or longer than earlier events (23 and 25 minutes), they were lower energy, and the plumes rose only 400-500 m above the summit crater.

OVSICORI-UNA reported that ash emissions occurred on 1, 4, 7, and 22 June 2015. The eruption on 1 June was the largest, and the small ash eruption on the afternoon of 22 June deposited ash mainly in the vicinity of the volcano to the SW (figure 45). They also reported a significant decrease in the seismic activity, such that by late June, the RSAM values had returned to levels similar to October 2014, prior to the start of the most recent eruptive events. Significant rains after April 2015 led to a shallow lake forming in the Cráter Oeste. Images taken in July of the Cráter Central showed deposits of eruptive material more than 2 m thick compared with May 2014.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Eruption at Turrialba on 22 June 2015. Webcam image courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (Boletín de Vulcanología, Estado de los Volcanes de Costa Rica, June 2015).

Seismicity continued to decrease during August 2015. However, an event on 15 August comprised nine hours of tremor associated with the ascent and escape of a bubble of magmatic gas, according to OVSICORI-UNA. The resulting ash ejection was believed to be material that had accumulated at the bottom of the crater. Seismicity remained low during September, with no reported ash emissions.

An increase in seismicity began on 1 October 2015, and until a large eruption on 16 October (figure 46). This was followed on 23 October by a lengthy sequence of ash emissions that continued until 31 October. The 16 October eruption was the largest in terms of energy since the 30 October 2014 eruption. Most of the ash fell on the summit, but a plume headed NW and minor ashfall was reported in parts of the Valle Central such as la Unión, Concepción de Tres Ríos, Montes de Oca (30 km WSW), San Rafael de Coronado (26 km WSW), and Moravia (27 km W). A strong odor of sulfur was reported in Tierra Blanca (18 km SW), Pacayas (12 km SSW), Moravia, and Guadalupe (32 km WSW).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. A Google Earth image of Turrialba annotated with images from the 16 and 26 October 2015 eruptions. a) 20-cm- diameter impact from volcanic ejecta. b) Solar panel destroyed by impacts. c) Ash deposit. d) Pyroclastic flow deposit. e) Hot material deposited by the pyroclastic flow. f) Thermal image of an eruption on 26 Of October (Photos: G.Avard). Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (Boletín de Vulcanología, Estado de los Volcanes de Costa Rica, October 2015).

Seismicity increased between 16 and 23 October, when new ash emissions began and were accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Between 23 and 31 October, OVSICORI-UNA reported 57 small emissions and 120 explosions of varying size and characteristics. The Washington VAAC was unable to see most of the emissions in satellite imagery due to weather clouds, however the plumes on 31 October were reported at 4.3 km altitude moving W. Both seismic and eruptive activity declined considerably during November 2015. OVSICORI-UNA reported one small eruption on 27 November and a small explosion on 30 November; they did not mention ash related to either event.

Activity during 2016. OVSICORI-UNA reported a brief emission of gases and volcanic ash to 500 m above the crater on 2 February 2016. Residents of La Silva (2 km NW) reported a sulfur odor and ashfall on 5 February, and additional emissions above Cráter Oeste on 6 February. The Washington VAAC noted gray emissions on 8 February. The next report, on 3 April, described an explosion lasting less than one minute that generated a small gas-and-ash plume. Seismicity increased on 28 April, followed by ash emissions and frequent small explosions on 30 April and 1 May from Cráter Oeste. Gas-and-tephra emissions increased on 1 May with minor amounts of ash deposited in La Central (4 km SW) and La Pastora (6 km SSE). A larger ash plume on 2 May rose 2 km above the summit, and was followed by frequent explosions producing 1-km-high ash plumes the next day. Frequent explosions were again recorded during 3-5 May with ash plumes rising up to 1 km above Cráter Oeste. Small lahars were reported on 7 May, and small, frequent ash emissions accompanied spasmodic tremor on 8 May.

A significant explosion on 16 May 2016, that caused abundant ashfall on farms 2.5 km WNW, was the start of a new episode that lasted for more than two months. Frequent ash emissions continued the next day, although seismic tremor amplitude decreased substantially from the initial explosion. Numerous gas-and-ash emissions were reported during 17-19 May. Ashfall was reported in areas of Valle Central (30-40 km W), including Coronado, Guadalupe, and Heredia (38 km W). On 20 May a Strombolian phase began, producing an ash-and-gas plume that rose 3 km and drifted W. The eruptive column collapsed, generating pyroclastic flows that reached the nearby ranches of La Silva and La Picada, and the Cráter Central. According to a news article, some airlines canceled or delayed flights into the Juan Santamaría International Airport (48 km W).

Gas-and-ash emissions continued during 21-22 May; plumes rose as high as 600 m above the summit. Villagers reported ashfall in areas of San José (40 km WSW), Cartago (25 km SW), Alajuela (49 km W), Heredia (38 km W), Puriscal (65 km WSW), and Jaco (100 km SW). Ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted W and SW on 23 May, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Tapezco (Zarcero-Alfaro Ruíz, 70 km WNW), Guácima de Alajuela (55 km WSW), Barva (39 km W), Finca Lara (17 km W), Finca Laguna (23 km WNW), Grecia, and Naranjo. A strong explosion on 24 May generated new ash plumes that rose 3.5 km and drifted SW. This event ejected large rocks around the crater and led to ashfall in multiple areas including Santa Rosa de Oreamuno, Santa Cecilia de Heredia, and San Francisco de Heredia, tens of kilometers to the W. Large amounts of ash (deposits 2-7 mm thick) fell in Carthage, Heredia (38 km W), San José (40 km W), and Alajuela (49 km W) from more explosions on 25 May that also ejected incandescent material.

A small explosion on 1 June 2016 began a new sequence of ash emissions, with plumes rising 1-2 km, that lasted until 4 June. Ashfall was reported in a number of communities including San Rafael de Moravia (31 km WSW), Sabana (38 km WSW), Buenos Aires (17 km N), and Pococí (45 km N) during 2-3 June. Ash emissions and explosions on 10 June caused ashfall and/or a sulfur odor in multiple areas of Valle Central including San Luis, Santo Domingo, Moravia, San Francisco, and Coronado. OVSICORI-UNA reported increased seismic activity on 16 June; the webcam showed areas of incandescence. Morning satellite imagery showed a diffuse ash plume extending 45 km WNW of the summit that dissipated by mid-afternoon. Tremor increased on 23 June, followed by a lengthy sequence of tremor episodes and ash emissions that lasted through 26 June; ashfall was reported in several neighborhoods in San José and Heredia. Increased tremor on 28 June was likely accompanied by ash emissions, but darkness and clouds obscured views from the webcam.

Strong tremor on 7 July 2016 was followed by an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater and likely drifted WNW and WSW. Ashfall was recorded in many neighborhoods downwind, in San José, Heredia, and Turrubares. Emissions of large amounts of ash were visible in the webcam the next day, and ashfall was reported in many of the same areas as the day before. The Washington VAAC issued daily reports from 7 to 15 July of diffuse ash emissions observed in the webcam, generally rising less than 500 m above the summit. A new series of explosions during 22-25 July were recorded seismically, but visual observations were difficult due to fog. Hot rock fragments, gas, and ash were noted as high as 500 m above the crater on 24 July. Ash plumes rose to 3 km above the crater and drifted NW, W, and SW the next day. OVSICORI-UNA reported possible volcanic ash again on 29 July and 1 August, but weather clouds prevented views in satellite imagery.

Another new series of explosions and ash emissions began on 13 September 2016. They were reported daily from 15 September to the end of the month. Most plumes rose less than 1 km above the crater, but explosions on 19 September generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km and resulted in ashfall in many communities in the Valle Central, including those in San José (35 km WSW), Heredia (38 km W), Alajuela, and Cartago (25 km SW). According to news articles, flights in and out of the Juan Santamaría International Airport were canceled; the airport remained closed at least through the morning of 20 September. The Pavas San José Tobías Bolaños Airport in San José was also temporarily closed. Plumes that rose as high as 2 km were reported on 22, 26, and 27 September.

During a 22-24 September field visit OVSICORI-UNA scientists observed a significant lahar in the Rio Toro Amarillo which flows NW from Turrialba, that mobilized logs and large rocks in a 1.5-m-deep flow (figure 47). They had observed 3 cm of fresh ash in the drainage prior to the start of the rainfall on 22 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. The abrupt change in flow conditions was observed by OVSICORI-UNA scientists on 22 September 2016 when heavy rains generated a lahar in the Rio Toro Amarillo at Turrialba. The inset photo shows the same area about an hour before the flooding. Photo by E. Duarte, courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (Algunos Efectos Proximales y Distales por Acumulación de la Ceniza: Volcán Turrialba, Reporte de campo: 22-24 de setiembre de 2016).

From 26 September through 24 November 2016 multiple reports were issued by the Washington VAAC virtually every day, usually reporting minor emissions of gas and ash. OVSICORI reported intermittent steam, gas, and ash emissions rising 500-1,000 m during all of October 2016. Ashfall was reported in Guadeloupe on 11 October. On 16 October OVSICORI-UNA noted that the almost constant ash emission in the previous few days affected the operation and communication of various scientific instruments installed at the top of the volcano and surrounding areas; communication with two seismic stations located near the summit was lost. Webcams showed continuing ash emissions rising as high as 1 km during 16-18 October. During 18-25 October, passive ash emissions continued, causing ashfall in Siquirres (30 ENE), Guacimo (23 km NNE), Guapiles (21 km N), Moravia (27 km W), San José (36 km WSW), Tibás (35 km WSW), Guadalupe (32 km WSW), Curridabat (32 km WSW), Tres Ríos (27 km SW), San Pedro (32 km WSW), and various areas of the Valle Central. Ashfall was reported in Nubes de Coronado (25 km W) on 28 October.

There were fewer reports of ashfall during November, although many areas of the Valle Central reported ashfall during 9-13 November. A small quantity of ash fell in Cartago and Paraiso de Cartago (25 km SE) on 20 November. The Washington VAAC again issued near-daily reports of ash and gas plumes between 6 December and the end of 2016. The weak and sporadic emissions generally rose only a few hundred meters, drifting in multiple directions, and there were few reports of ashfall in the surrounding communities.

Geologic Background. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive edifice covers an area of 500 km2. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/).


Unnamed (Tonga) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Unnamed

Tonga

20.852°S, 175.55°W; summit elev. -296 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Plumes of discolored water seen in satellite imagery during 23-28 January 2017

Murray Ford, a coastal geomorphologist from New Zealand's Auckland University, reported in a Radio New Zealand story on 1 February 2017 that satellite imagery showed a large plume of discolored water between Tongatapu and the volcanic Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai islands. The activity seen by Murray was on a Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) satellite image acquired on 27 January 2017 (figure 2). which showed a bright area of discolored water above the summit and a broader area of discolored water immediately NW, likely from previous events. According to volcanologist Brad Scott (GNS Science) there are additional satellite images from 23, 26, 28, and 29 January 2017, indicating that the eruption had been ongoing for over a week. His colleagues in Tonga indicated a possible associated steam plume, but cloud cover made observations uncertain.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Landsat 8 OLI satellite image a submarine plume from an unnamed seamount in Tonga on 27 January 2017, about 33 km NW of Tongatapu island. A small bright area of discolored water is directly over the summit (bottom center), with a small plume immediately N, and a broad area of discolored water to the NW, likely from previous eruptive events. The larger plume to the NW measures 30 km long and 20 km wide. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory (https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=89565).

A report prepared by Taylor (2000) noted that there had been four previous reports of activity from this location: submarine activity in August 1911, a steam plume in July 1923, discolored water in 1970, and an ephemeral island near the end of an eruptive episode during 27 December 1998-14 January 1999 (also see BGVN 24:03). In a blog post about the latest eruption, Brad Scott (GNS Science) also stated that there had been discolored water and felt earthquakes sometime in 2007.

Reference: Taylor, P., 2000, A volcanic hazards assessment following the January 1999 eruption of Submarine Volcano III, Tofua Volcanic Arc, Kingdom of Tonga, Australian Volcanological Investigations (AVI) Occasional Report No. 99/01, 5 August 2000, 7 p.

Geologic Background. An unnamed submarine volcano is located 35 km NW of the Niu Aunofo lighthouse on Tongatapu Island. Tongatapu is a coral island at the southern end of an island chain paralleling the Tofua volcanic arc to the E. The volcano was constructed at the S end of a submarine ridge segment of the Tofua volcanic arc extending NNE to Falcon Island. The first documented eruptions took place in 1911 and 1923; an ephemeral island was formed in 1999.

Information Contacts: NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); Brad Scott, New Zealand GeoNet Project, a collaboration between the Earthquake Commission and GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo 3352, New Zealand (URL: http://www.geonet.org.nz/, http://www.geonet.org.nz/news/1usjOmF4LqaI64qScMocuW); Radio New Zealand (URL: http://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/323569/scientist-discovers-underwater-eruption-in-tonga).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

View Atmospheric Effects Reports

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

View Special Announcements Reports

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).